Summary report, 16 November 2013
Warsaw Development and Climate Days (D&C Days) at COP 19
Development and Climate Days (D&C Days) took place from 16-17 November 2013, in Warsaw, Poland, on the periphery of the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Jointly supported by the Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre (RCCC), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the event continued the focus from 2012 on “Innovative approaches, incisive dialogue for climate-smart development.”
This report covers the events of the first day, 16 November, which was facilitated by RCCC and the GEF, and focused on showcasing the experience of adaptation practitioners from the field. During the morning session, participants engaged in ‘lightning talks’ on emerging issues, solutions and actors. Discussion topics included: effective implementation of priorities identified in the national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs); ecosystem-based adaptation; and climate risk and vulnerability analysis to integrate different financing sources for adaptation.
The lightning talks were followed by a participatory game titled “Climate Attribution Under Loss & Damage: Risking, Observing, Negotiating (CAULDRON)”, during which participants assumed the roles of: a farmer forced to make planting decisions in a changing climate; a scientist assessing the influence of greenhouse gas emissions on drought risk; and a UN negotiator establishing a mechanism to cope with loss and damage. The game evoked a range of emotions among the participants, from joy to disappointment, bringing home the reality of how difficult decision-making can be for all actors in the face of complexity and uncertainty.
In the afternoon, participants discussed challenges and innovations from the field, based on learning about adaptation projects and programmes financed through the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and the GEF’s Strategic Priority for Adaptation (SPA). A high-level panel on national-level funding on loss and damage followed, during which participants emphasized the urgent need for global solidarity in acknowledging and addressing climate impacts. A reception followed the formal programme of the day, which included an interview panel on reaching the local level with adaptation finance.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF D&C DAYS
D&C Days began as ‘Adaptation Day’ at UNFCCC COP 8 in 2002, in New Delhi, India, with the aim of discussing the links between climate change, development and poverty. A ‘Development Day’ was added in 2004 to bring in development practitioners who, until then, did not attend climate change negotiations, but whose active engagement was necessary in addressing the impacts of climate change on development. In 2007, the event was renamed ‘Development and Climate Days’ to reflect the need to mainstream adaptation into the development agenda.
ADAPTATION DAY AT COP 8: The first Adaptation Day in New Delhi, India, in 2002, included sessions on science, funding, policy and actions.
ADAPTATION DAY AT COP 9: Adaptation Day in 2003 took place in Milan, Italy, and included sessions on: the science of adaptation; funding adaptation; adaptation in action; and the politics and negotiations of adaptation.
DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 10: In Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 2004, Development Day focused on: climate change and development; food security and disaster planning; and water and health. Adaptation Day included discussions on: the science of adaptation; funding adaptation; and adaptation in action. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 10: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop10/dad/.
DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 11: Development Day in Montreal, Canada, in 2005, focused on: linkages between climate change and development; health; and disaster management. Adaptation Day included sessions on: the science of adaptation; community-based adaptation; and experience with NAPAs. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 11: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop11/dad/.
DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 12: In 2006, in Nairobi, Kenya, Development Day focused on: energy and sustainable development; agriculture and food security; and water. Adaptation Day included sessions on: science, tools and adaptation; community-based adaptation; and experience with least developed countries’ (LDCs) NAPAs. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 12: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop12/dad/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 13: The 2007 event in Bali, Indonesia, included panels on: disaster reduction and extreme weather events; cities; health; financing adaptation; food and agriculture; community-based adaptation; and communication for communities across sectors and timescales. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 13: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop13/dcd/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 14: The 2008 event in Poznań, Poland, included discussions on: vulnerable groups; gender and climate change; children; the Arctic and small island developing States (SIDS); rights and justice; policymaking in a changing climate; community-based adaptation; adaptation effectiveness; and adaptation funding. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 14: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/ cop14/dcd/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 15: The 2009 event in Copenhagen, Denmark, focused on: land, water and forests; justice, ethics and humanitarian issues; adaptation planning; and mitigation, finance and the private sector. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 15: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop15/dcd/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 16: In 2010, in Cancún, Mexico, D&C Days focused on: low-carbon, resilient development; adaptation, including community-based institutions, planning, assessment and financing; climate change communications; the Fairtrade movement and climate change; and climate change and migration. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 16: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop16/dcd/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 17: In Durban, South Africa, in 2011, D&C Days focused on effective climate change adaptation planning, in response to the decision taken in 2010 under the Cancún Adaptation Framework to invite all countries, and especially LDCs, to develop national adaptation plans. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 17: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop17/dcd/.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 18: In Doha, Qatar, in 2012, D&C Days celebrated a 10th anniversary, and focused on ‘innovative approaches, and incisive dialogue on climate-smart development.’ The event included an Adaptation Practitioners Day, facilitated by the GEF and the UNFCCC Secretariat, which brought together pioneers of adaptation to share experiences of climate-resilient development in action. It featured a number of presentations on experiences on the ground gained from more than 10 years of creative adaptation financing through the two adaptation-related funds established under the UNFCCC: the LDCF and SCCF. IISD Coverage of D&C Days at COP 18: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop18/dcapd/html/crsvol99num9e.html.
REPORT OF DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP19
Development and Climate Days (D&C Days) at the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took place on 16 and 17 November 2013. IISD Reporting Services covered the first day of the meeting, 16 November 2013, and this report sets out the discussions and activities undertaken during the day’s events.
On Saturday, 16 November 2013, Carina Bachofen, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre (RCCC) opened D&C Days at COP19. Serving as the moderator, she invited participants to embrace new approaches and ways of learning. Saleemul Huq, International Centre for Climate Change and Development, welcomed participants to the 11th anniversary of D&C Days, encouraging exchange as “human beings and not only negotiators.”
Yukicha Usui, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), presented some JICA activities and policies for mainstreaming adaptation, such as practicing the process of risk recognition, adaptation planning and vulnerability assessment. He underscored the value of prevention as the most cost-effective practice in most cases.
Rawleston Moore, GEF, asked participants to keep in mind the victims of climate-related disasters, particularly in the recent Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines, while discussing adaptation at the event. He said such climate-related disasters highlight the importance of adaptation, and that the GEF is happy to share its knowledge and experience in dealing with adaptation through the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF).
Ari Huhtala, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), said CDKN’s work is focused on climate compatible development. He announced the CDKN Award for Influencing Through Research and Communications to a project by RCCC, using games as an effective method to simulate the experience of climate risk and communicate complex messages on dealing with climate impacts.
Pablo Suarez, RCCC, thanked CDKN, attributing the success of the project to the vast outreach of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). He said humanitarian organizations like IFRC are involved in adaptation to ensure development efforts succeed, and to share the skills and experience they have in the field of disaster management, particularly relating to participatory approaches such as games.
LIGHTNING TALKS: EMERGING ISSUES, SOLUTIONS AND ACTORS
Roland Sundstrom, GEF, introduced a ‘world café format’ for group discussions, designed to provide an overview of adaptation practices in order to emerge from discussions with new insights, partnerships and ideas for actions. Twelve speakers outlined topics, including: national and sub-national planning: experiences from Nepal; effective implementation of national adaptation programme of action (NAPA) priorities: the case of the Gambia; ecosystem-based adaptation; integration of climate risk and vulnerability analysis for effective adaptation financing; climate-risk insurance; local adaptive capacity building; health, adaptation and climate change; climate-smart agriculture; gender and adaptive strategy; disaster risk reduction through community-based early warning in Malawi; climate information for better planning at community level; minimum standards for local climate-smart disaster risk reduction; and climate information as a tool for adapting to the limitation of rain-fed agriculture.
At the end of the group discussions, Sundstrom invited facilitators to summarize lessons learned and approaches to take forward. The group on national and sub-national planning highlighted Nepal’s experience with Local Adaptation Plans of Action, capacity building, resource mobilization and mainstreaming adaptation to harmonize it with different sectors, including disaster risk reduction.
The group on effective implementation of NAPA priorities in the Gambia emphasized the need to address sustainability issues and messaging via traditional communication methods.
The group on ecosystem-based adaptation discussed challenges in integrative approaches, how to deal with trade-offs and approaches to engaging private sector investments.
The group on using climate risk and vulnerability analysis for effective adaptation financing highlighted the need to use participatory approaches in creating scenarios of climate risk at the local level, as well as approaches tailored to national political and economic circumstances.
The group on climate risk insurance highlighted: the role of insurance in adaptation and dealing with uncertainty, but only as one part of a much bigger picture; a number of innovative approaches in the Horn of Africa, the Pacific, and the Caribbean; and the need to design insurance initiatives for the needs of the people.
The group on building local capacity through the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance highlighted: tapping into government networks; ensuring local voices are heard; and creatively thinking about ways to engage communities, the ultimate decision makers.
The group on health, adaptation and climate change emphasized the importance of ensuring that all stakeholders are on the same page, and the role of women and children as climate change champions.
The group on climate-smart agriculture discussed the challenges of: balancing long- and short-term adaptation priorities; ensuring that short-term measures do not create problems in the long term (such as replacing rain-fed agriculture with irrigated agriculture); acknowledging the crucial role of actors such as climate champions; and designing responses based on local circumstances.
The group on gender highlighted the importance of challenging assumptions; empowering women and youth as agents of change; and bringing everyone to the table to tackle climate impacts.
The group on disaster risk reduction through community-based early warning in Malawi outlined challenges such as ‘false alarm’ warnings and communication between upstream and downstream communities. The group developed potential solutions for increased sustainability such as engaging mobile providers to provide extended service as part of their corporate social responsibility.
The group on climate information for better planning at the community level highlighted the importance of integrating traditional knowledge with climate science, as well as engaging school children to promote community-wide comprehension and capacity to respond to disaster.
On minimum standards for local climate-smart disaster risk reduction, the group noted that discussions were productive in providing understanding of specific cases and in building interest to influence the design of climate-smart projects.
The group on climate information as a tool for adapting to the limitation of rain-fed agriculture highlighted the need to use and understand weather forecasting systems.
PARTICIPATORY GAME: FARMERS, SCIENTISTS AND NEGOTIATORS
Participants played “Climate Attribution Under Loss & Damage: Risking, Observing, Negotiating (CAULDRON),” an ‘attribution game’ developed for a project on attributing impacts of external climate drivers on extreme weather in Africa. The game was developed by RCCC in partnership with the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford; University of Reading; the UK Meteorological Office; and Africa Climate Exchange. Named ‘CAULDRON’ to highlight situations characterized by instability and strong emotions, the game encouraged dialogue between stakeholders by utilizing an engaging and effective process to understand loss and damage.
Pablo Suarez, RCCC, instructed participants to assume the roles of: a farmer forced to make planting decisions in a changing climate; a scientist assessing the influence of greenhouse gas emissions on drought risk; and a UN negotiator establishing a mechanism to cope with loss and damage, and deciding how to distribute resources with incomplete scientific information about the distribution of climate change impacts.
Participants were grouped into small teams and Suarez guided them in exploring whether scientific evidence of the link between developed country emissions and extreme weather is needed for policy to support developing countries.
During the game, which involved the use of a loaded ‘climate’ dice by some of the teams, participants were forced to think quickly and work together to address challenges such as drought or administrative costs for development. With Suarez providing directives at a fast pace, participants quickly assumed their assigned roles and appeared deeply engaged in the game, as they could be seen jumping to their feet and running to the front of the room to get in their mandates on time.
After the game, participants reflected that although there may not have been ‘new information,’ there was power in the role-play. One participant stated that he walked away from the game with a clear message regarding the critical importance of preparation. Another participant noted that the game was effective in creating the experience of dealing with loss and damage without adequate means to implement responses.
Concluding the session, Suarez noted that games engage emotions, making participants more likely to retain learning and go deeper with analysis. He said the current format of the UN climate negotiations, which begins with the statement of opposing positions, has been described as a ‘self-blocking process,’ and encouraged the use of new and creative ways to achieve progress.
CHALLENGES AND INNOVATIONS FROM THE FIELD
This session was moderated by Dan Hamza-Goodacre, CDKN. He introduced the panel on challenges and innovations from the field from projects and programmes financed through the LDCF, SCCF and SPA, indicating that the session aimed to deliver knowledge, networks and actions to participants.
Zolfaqar Karimi Baloch, National Environmental Protection Agency, Afghanistan, shared his country’s experience in building adaptive strategy and resilience to climate change by developing field activities in four provinces. He outlined some of the challenges for his country, where agriculture is the largest sector and water storage capacity is very low, creating vulnerability to climate change impacts. Baloch outlined the activities undertaken by the project, including: constructing water structures; deploying micro-catchment techniques, community conservation and restoration plans; planting multiple benefit species; and building terracing.
Safi Solange Bako, National Council for Environment and Sustainable Development, Niger, presented on implementing NAPA priorities in Niger with funding from the LDCF and Canada. Highlighting the importance of the agriculture and livestock sectors in the economy of Niger, she said the project reached out to 8000 farmers and aimed at improving the resilience of food production systems; capacity building and knowledge management; recuperating degraded land for pastoral use; and improving generation and use of meteorological and agro-meteorological information. Among the lessons learned, she listed the need to invest additional time in community-based approaches in order to build long-term capacities and ensure the sustainability of actions; engage local municipalities and communities in implementation; and focus on gender issues, lessons learned and knowledge management. She noted that the project is being scaled up in 56 areas in Niger.
Gebru Jember, Climate Change Forum, Ethiopia, presented on best practices in coping with drought and climate change, based on the GEF-funded model project under implementation in four African countries – Ethiopia, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Describing experiences in Ethiopia, he said the outcomes of the project include: livelihood diversification; enhanced livestock and crop production; early warning systems; community-based natural resource management; irrigation development; spring development for water supply; flood protection; improved marketing and value chains; and environmental management.
Charles Nyandiga, UN Development Programme – Small Grants Programme, reviewed the challenges in the different phases of project development in the context of the Community-Based Adaptation Programme, including: information, institutions, social-cultural contexts and financial or environmental laws in the designing phase; information gathering and use, and ability to achieve consensus among all actors at the initiating phase; assessing options, and identifying and agreeing on goals in the planning phase; and relevant and community-driven monitoring plans, agreements and clarity in the monitoring and evaluating phase. He emphasized that solutions lie in the ability to address national policies, education and work across sectors, encouraging more consideration of process.
Mamadou Lamarana Diallo, LDCF Project Coordinator, Guinea, shared insights of a project that reduces the vulnerability of Guinea’s coastal zones and communities; works to integrate climate change adaptation into relevant national, sub-national and local planning processes; and strengthens the capacities of authorities and communities to apply climate information. He said the project also promotes technology transfer for climate-resilient coastal-zone management, including through sustainable land management and efficient use of biomass for energy.
Luis Santos, Ministry of Housing, Land Planning and Environment, Uruguay, presented on increasing ecosystem resilience by integrating climate risks into Uruguay’s land use planning and coastal zone management initiatives. He outlined three planned outcomes: incorporating climate change risks into national coastal policies and regulatory frameworks; piloting adaptation measures at the local level; and managing and evaluating knowledge. The project includes three stages: building relationships with relevant stakeholders and raising awareness, while collecting data and identifying critical sites; selecting and implementing adaptation measures, with monitoring and evaluation mechanisms involving stakeholders; and raising awareness among decision-makers and stakeholders, to encourage mainstreaming and incorporation in planning instruments. Regarding next steps and challenges, he identified the need to: harvest lessons; design a strategy to replicate these project; access and channel international adaptation finance to existing institutions and capacities developed by the project; and consider the need for a National Adaptation Plan.
Hamza-Goodacre called on participants to identify recommendations to scale up the innovative approaches presented by the panelists. Participants provided specific suggestions including: promoting regional cooperation; utilizing radio to overcome political challenges; strengthening National Adaptation Plans to provide useful frameworks to local government; community action and awareness building; continued knowledge management; and private sector adoption for financial sustainability.
HIGH-LEVEL PANEL: NATIONAL-LEVEL FUNDING OF ADAPTATION
The panel was facilitated by Saleemul Huq, who called for a “conversation from the heart.”
Rawleston Moore described the impacts of climate change in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, and outlined existing solutions such as insurance to address loss and damage.
Mary Robinson, Mary Robinson Foundation – Climate Justice, called on civil society to push governments and the private sector to commit to more at the Climate Summit being convened by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in September 2014, saying events like D&C Days are an opportunity to encourage and share experiences with one another.
Robinson described mitigation, adaptation, and loss and damage as a continuum where action on mitigation can reduce the need for adaptation and adaptation can reduce loss and damage. She said the climate justice community could learn from the transitional justice community, by acknowledging climate change as a problem caused by human beings and acting in solidarity to address reparations, while guaranteeing non-repetition of the injustice by committing to keep global temperatures at safe levels. She proposed the use of global and regional solidarity funds to address the issue of loss and damage.
Huq asked the two panelists how the passion of people participating in D&C Days could be channeled to the UN process. In response, Moore highlighted the role of youth in leading fundamental change, and of education and awareness raising. Robinson noted the need for the climate negotiations, viewed mostly as technical and divisive, to use the political momentum and support behind the Sustainable Development Goals to move forward and make climate change the biggest issue faced by humankind. Reflecting on the role of the people in overcoming apartheid in South Africa as an example of realized justice, she expressed optimism that through coalitions, the public will take necessary steps to ensure a safe future.
Participants reflected on disappointments in the pace of negotiations and the deep impact of disaster to the morale of the public. Robinson, referring to herself as ‘a prisoner of hope,’ asserted that it is possible to marshal a massive movement that utilizes social media to gain human solidarity “to do what we can, to do what we must.”
Suarez announced the teams that won the ‘best scientists’ awards from the CAULDRON game played during the morning session. He highlighted the role of D&C Days as a forum for speaking frankly and promoting innovative and participatory approaches, and thanked the participants. The formal programme for the day ended at 5.40 pm, and was followed by an evening reception and an interview panel on “reaching the local level with adaptation finance.”
INTERVIEW PANEL ON REACHING THE LOCAL LEVEL WITH ADAPTATION FINANCE
On Saturday evening, 16 November 2013, Annaka Peterson Carvalho, Adaptation Finance Accountability Initiative, moderated the interview panel, engaging panelists with questions about their experience with adaptation. Bettina Koelle, Indigo Development and Change, reflected on the long-term commitment required to deliver adaptation at the grassroots level, sharing challenges in co-generating knowledge with stakeholders as well as forwarding the lessons learned to the global dialogue.
Barbara Siegmund, Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda, underscored the importance of supporting community ownership despite administrative challenges. Sunil Acharya, Clean Energy Nepal, highlighted coordination and sizeable funding as requirements for delivering funds to the community level. On designing an ultimate mechanism for adaptation that serves the most vulnerable, Koelle noted the importance of robust funds that are accessible locally to encourage community strategy development for adaptation.
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THIRD MEETING OF THE SIXTH REPLENISHMENT OF THE GEF: The Third Meeting of the Sixth Replenishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF-6) is scheduled to take place in December 2013. Representatives from donor countries, non-donor recipient countries, civil society, the GEF agencies, the Trustee, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP), and the Evaluation Office are set to attend. dates: 10-12 December 2013 location: Paris, Ile-De-France, France contact: GEF Secretariat phone: +1 202 473 0508 fax: +1 (202) 522-3240 e-mail: email@example.com www: http://www.thegef.org/gef/events/third-repenishment-meeting
SIXTH MEETING OF THE GREEN CLIMATE FUND BOARD: The sixth meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board of the UNFCCC will take place in Indonesia, from 19-21 February 2013. dates: 19-21 February 2014 location: Indonesia contact: Interim Secretariat of the Green Climate Fund phone: +49 228 815-1371 fax: +49 228 815-0349 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://gcfund.net/home.html
8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNITY-BASED ADAPTATION: The objectives of the 8th Conference on Community-Based Adaptation are to provide learning and sharing spaces to explore the challenges and opportunities and share experience and knowledge from Community-Based Adaptation activities amongst practitioners, policymakers, researchers, funders and the communities at risk. dates: April 2014 (tentative) location: Nepal contact: IIED www: http://www.iied.org/community-based-adaptation-cba-conference-archive
46TH GEF COUNCIL MEETING AND GEF ASSEMBLY: The GEF Assembly will be held back-to-back with the 46th GEF Council meeting in Mexico. The CSO Consultation, GEF Council and LDCF/SCCF Council Meetings will convene from 25-27 May, with the Council meeting beginning on 25 May and overlapping for half a day, on 27 May, with the CSO Consultation. dates: 25-30 May 2014 location: Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico contact: GEF Secretariat phone: +(202) 473-0508 fax: +(202) 522-3240/3245 e-mail: email@example.com www: http://www.thegef.org/gef/calendar-date/2014-05 http://www.thegef.org/gef/news/mexico-host-5th-assembly-glob...
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UNFCCC COP 20: COP 20 is expected to take place in December 2014 in Peru. dates: 3-14 December 2014 location: Peru contact: UNFCCC Secretariat phone: +49-228 815-1000 fax: +49-228-815-1999 e-mail: email@example.com www: http://www.unfccc.int