IISD Reporting Services -
KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
This page was updated on: 12/09/10
Latest New Publications and Resources
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) released this report, which provides updated estimates on the number of rural poor people in developing countries and rural poverty rates. This 2011 edition of the report is the first since 2001. The report underscores threats to rural development posed by climate change, volatile food prices, and natural resource constraints. It also notes ecosystems and biodiversity that sustain agricultural production are changing, and highlights the challenges to boosting international agricultural productivity. In terms of opportunities, the report describes the growth of urban centers and better organized agricultural markets. It further outlines efforts to help poor rural people avoid and manage risks. [IFAD press release] [Report website]
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released this report, which examines scenarios, results and policy options to promote sustainable food production in an era of climate change. The report features 15 food security scenarios through 2050 that examine potential population and income growth, alongside climate change scenarios. The report suggests that the negative impacts of climate change on food security could be mitigated by improved agricultural productivity, broad economic growth and robust international trade to counter regional food shortages. The report notes poor biophysical and social data to help improve models, but also highlights initiatives underway to address these shortfalls. The report further underscores the need to improve satellite observation data. [IFPRI publication on food security and farming]
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), highlights the vulnerability of LDCs to climate impacts. For example, the report indicates that the LDC small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs in Asia are particularly vulnerable to the impact of storms and are also the least able to cope with the social and economic fallout from climate-related incidents. Although the LDCs as a group contribute relatively little to global warming — accounting for less than 1 per cent of the world’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions — the report notes that they will be disproportionately affected by changing climatic conditions. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in LDCs (e.g. droughts, extreme temperature and floods) have been increasing, with five times as many such incidents occurring from 2000-2010 as from 1970-1979. The number of people in LDCs affected by these extreme events has almost doubled, rising from 100 million from 1970-1979 to 193 million from 2000-2010. During the latter period, economic losses in LDCs resulting from natural disasters amounted to an estimated US$14.1 billion. [The report]
(World Bank, 2010)
This World Bank report underlines that, by 2015, solar portable lights could provide access to clean and safe lighting to an estimated 65 million Africans who are currently either un-electrified or under-electrified. Solar Lighting development potential is attributed to three factors: a significant improvement in the quality and performance of solar portable lights in the past five years; a decline in retail price; and product features that have been adapted to meet consumer needs. [The report]
(UNU-IAS, October 2010)
Authored by Christian Prip, Tony Gross, Sam Johnston and Marjo Vierros, the report is the first comprehensive assessment of all national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) and their effectiveness as tools for national implementation. Among other things, and drawing on national experiences, the report seeks to establish whether NBSAPs have been successful in integrating biodiversity concerns into sectoral and cross-sectoral policies, including sustainable development strategies, poverty reduction strategy papers and national processes to meet the Millennium Development Goals, and identify obstacles preventing parties from making progress. Recommendations focus on the steps needed to ensure that NBSAPs fulfill their role as the primary mechanism for implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its new Strategic Plan. [The report]
(CBD Technical Series No. 54, October 2010)
Edited by P.L. Ibisch, A. Vega E. and T.M. Herrmann, this report presents an analysis of the systemic character of global change, biodiversity and human development, and the relationships between them, describing and evaluating the complicated relationships and dynamics between human and biological systems. It includes a technical section, an introduction to issues related to the interdependence of biodiversity and development under global change, and a proposal for a “radical” ecosystem approach for mutual mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation and human development. Background papers address: global patterns and case studies on the interlinkages of biodiversity and human development; biocultural diversity and development under local and global change, including issues related to endogenous development, traditional knowledge and benefit-sharing, and indigenous peoples’ conserved areas; and theoretical background papers presenting, among others, an alternative conceptual framework for sustainability based on systemics and thermodynamics. [The publication]
(UNDP, November 2010)
This report focuses on long-term development trends and indicates that, although inequalities within and between countries remain, people today are generally healthier, wealthier and better educated than they were in 1970. It indicates that major challenges to development, including climate change, need to be addressed by a global governance system and not by individual States. The report stresses that economic insecurity and climate change are major sources of vulnerability and unsustainability of development, in particular from unsustainable production and consumption patterns that rely heavily on fossil fuels. It emphasizes that climate change may be the single factor that makes the future very different, impeding continuing progress in human development. [UNDP Human Development Report 2010]
(UN-HABITAT, October 2010)
This booklet presents the work of the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) in the perspective of international debate on urban planning and at the country level. Issues covered include planning for slum prevention and upgrading, addressing climate change and building environmental sustainability, urban safety and security, local economic development and infrastructure, and disaster and post-conflict reconstruction. The booklet focuses on issues related to climate change and the urban environment agenda such as the dependency of cities in fossil fuels and how to bridge the green and brown agenda through environmental management and planning. [The booklet]
(UNSTATS, October 2010)
This report, by the UN Statistics Division, highlights the differences in the status of women and men in eight areas – population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty. The report notes that climate change may deepen environment-related gender inequality, particularly in developing regions. It also notes that women are considered to be among the most vulnerable groups, as they tend to be more dependent on natural resources threatened by climate change and have fewer assets to cope with it. The report indicates that monitoring the gendered effects of climate change may not be easily detectable at larger geographical units such as region, country, urban and rural. [The report]
(UNFPA, October 2010)
This report, a flagship publication by the UN Population Fund, emphasizes that when women have access to the same rights and opportunities as men, they are more resilient to conflict and disaster and can lead reconstruction and renewal efforts in their societies. [The report]
(UNCTAD, October 2010)
This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and 36 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries by quantifying the immediate monetary costs for non-signatory ACP countries; quantifying the immediate monetary benefits for signatory countries and analyzing the options for increased supply; analyzing the agricultural liberalization commitments of each region; analyzing how the actionable and non-actionable provision of agreements affect ACP agricultural production, trade and development. [The report]
(UNHCR, October 2010)
This report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to the 65th session of the General Assembly reviews the work carried out by UNHCR between January 2009 and mid-2010. The report notes that population displacement remains a major global issue, but population growth, urbanization, food and energy insecurity, water scarcity and climate change are interacting with traditional drivers – such as conflict and violence – to create new forms of displacement. [The report]
(ICAO, October 2010)
This report, published by the International Civil Aviation Organisation, focuses on climate change by bringing together a vast array of authoritative ideas, solutions and new challenges to feed the global discussion on how best to deal with the impact of aviation on the environment. [The report]
(UNCTAD, October 2010)
This report, published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), monitors global trends related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) from a development perspective. It focuses on the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. [The report]
(AU, UNOSAA, OECD, October 2010)
This study, prepared by the African Union (AU), the UN Office of the Special Advisor on Africa (UN-OSAA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), highlights that the global financial and economic crises exposed African economies’ dependence on too few export commodities and how they can diversify their economies. The study notes that climate change negotiations are opening up new opportunities for greening African economy growth, such as the Clean Development Mechanism to provide emission reduction credits to private companies. [The report]
(Asian Development Bank, 2010)
The report, product of a two-year collaborative study by the ADB, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank, highlights the impact of climate change on Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Manila under a range of climate change scenarios through 2050. The report finds that costs from major flooding events on infrastructure and the economy could run into the billions of dollars, with urban poor populations likely to be the hardest hit. It concludes that all three cities need to take targeted, city-specific and cutting edge approaches to meet these challenges. [The report]
(International Energy Agency, UNDP, UNIDO, September 2010)
The International Energy Agency (IEA), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) have released an excerpt fromtheir forthcoming World Energy Outlook, titled "Energy Poverty: How to make modern energy access universal?" The report notes that over 1.4 billion people currently lack access to electricity, and argues for the need to improve energy access and reduce energy poverty on health, environmental, and economic development grounds. It estimates the investment costs required to close the energy access gap completely to be US$36 billion per year globally until 2030. The report also introduces the Energy Development Index, a new tool to help measure progress on energy poverty. [The report]
(WIPO, September 2010)
This Lex database, developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization, provides a one-stop search facility for national laws and treaties relating to intellectual property. It features information to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of laws and treaties, and provides access to reference material on the global Intellectual Property System. [WIPO Lex]
(UNIFEM, September 2010)
This report, published by the United Nations Development Fund for Women, provides a brief preview of the issues covered in the forthcoming Progress of the World’s Women flagship report entitled ‘Gender Justice: Key to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals.’ This brief outlines four areas where urgent action is needed to accelerate progress on the MDGs and achieve gender justice including expanding women-friendly public services; guaranteeing land access and jobs for women; increasing women’s voice in decision-making; and ending violence against women and girls. [The report]
(UNIFEM, September 2010)
This report, released by UNIFEM, maps out gender-related concerns from the floods to current relief camps, identifying gaps in information and flagging issues for upcoming stages of early recovery. The report notes that, based on global evidence, people often resort to unsustainable use of natural resources in times of humanitarian crisis. It indicates that as existing resources are washed out or depleted, pressure on the remaining resources increase, recording harm to forest land, destroying saplings and plantations and stocked timber as well as extraction for firewood. The report also indicates extensive damage to livestock, which not only impairs women’s livelihood, but also affects sources of energy such as dung cakes and fertilizer. [The report]
(UN Secretary-General, September 2010)
This strategy, launched by the UN Secretary-General, sets out a plan to save the lives of millions of women and children who may die of preventable causes, calling for coordinated efforts and building on what has been achieved so far. Among various issues, the strategy notes that dirty water and inadequate sanitation cause diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, cholera and dysentery, especially among pregnant women, so sustainable access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is critical. It also notes that community-based health efforts must educate women and children about sanitation and must improve access to safe drinking water. [The report]
(World Bank, September 2010)
This e-Atlas, developed by the World Bank, provides visual maps of the indicators that measure progress toward the eight Millennium Development Goals – covering from poverty reduction, food security to environmental sustainability – with explanations of each goal and its related targets as the context. The e-Atlas allows the user to create a world map focusing on a selected indicator, with country rankings and data expressed by tables or graphs. [The e-Atlas]
(UNESCWA, September 2010)
This report, published by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, compares the regional cooperation opportunities and trends at the subnational, national, subregional and regional, providing policymakers and planners with information to stimulate regional cooperation and to support Arab countries in their efforts to achieve the MDGs. The report notes that deforestation is one of the principal contributors to desertification, a major problem in the Arab region. It also notes that in the LDCs and the Maghreb, demand for food and energy has increased to the point of seriously reducing forest coverage, such as wood to provide fuel. [The report]
(UNDP, UNESCAP, ADB, September 2010)
This report provides an update of the status in achieving the eight Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific. It reveals mixed results across countries in the region and points out that the region may reach 2015 with almost 35 million extra people in extreme income poverty, nearly 900,000 extra children suffering from malnutrition, 1.7 million births not attended by skilled professionals, 70 million more people without access to improved sanitation. The report highlights the important role of basic infrastructure in achieving MDG targets that would help 1.9 million people in the region living without basic sanitation, 470 million without safe drinking water, and the quarter of all households without access to electricity. It advocates that basic infrastructure needs to be in place to achieve the development goals. [The report]
(UNCTAD, August 2010)
This study focuses on the contributions to the development of human resources and to policy support for developing countries in the field of trade and development. It notes that traditional capacity building initiatives focused strictly on trade issues, while new capacity building initiatives focus on issues of trade in relation to economic and social development, and the environment, including environmental sustainability. [The report]
(UNHABITAT, July 2010)
The current issue of Urban World brings articles that consider the possibility of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, with a specific focus on Africa status and trends and the progress made to achieve the targets on access to safe water and basic sanitation. The issue also has an article that explores how turning urban centres into vertical farms could provide a response to the increasing demand for food in cities, while it could also reduce the need for new arable land, the effects on wildlife habitats, transport costs and emissions, and benefit the health of consumers. [The report]
(UNCCD and UNDP, 2010)
The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) released this report during the 2010 MDG Summit. The report maps the ‘forgotten billion’ drylands inhabitants from a natural endowments perspective. It suggests that, to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set for 2015, a strong coalition pursing five drylands-focused policy approaches will be required. These approaches are: country-led development and effective governance addressing the specific needs and conditions of drylands populations; inclusive and pro-poor economic growth policies that improve farming systems and soil productivity; climate adaptation to help small holder farmers manage risk and reduce climate-driven shocks; tailored and targeted interventions for social assistance; and investment in education, health and basic services. [The report]
(UNRISD, September 2010)
This report, the flagship publication of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, aims to contribute to debates on new policy approaches to poverty-reduction within the context of a post-MDG framework. The report focuses on: patterns of growth and structural change, including agricultural and service sectors; comprehensive social policies that are supportive of structural changes; and protection of civil rights and the mechanisms that facilitate the poor’s influence on how policies are made. It explores the causes, dynamics and persistence of poverty as well as what works and what does not in international policy thinking and practice. It reveals the multiple and complex processes involved in sustainable poverty reduction, and lays out a range of policies and institutional measures that countries can adopt to achieve it. [The report]
(WTO, September 2010)
This report, by the World Trade Organization, examines the characteristics of trade in natural resources, the policy choices available to governments, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, resource price volatility, and the role of international cooperation, particularly of the WTO, in the proper management of trade in this sector. [The report]
(ILO, August 2010)
This report, published by the International Labor Organization, indicates that out of 620 million economically active youth aged 15 to 24 years, 81 million were unemployed at the end of 2009, reaching the highest number ever. The report highlights youth employment measures adopted by many countries during the crisis, including sponsored skills development programmes to enhance the employability of disadvantaged youth, including through skills in emerging occupations such as green jobs. Specific cases from Belgium in providing general training toward energy efficient sectors and skills for green jobs, and Kenya with programmes of labour-intensive public works with a “green” focus are emphasized. [The report]
(UNHABITAT, the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN), FAO, August 2010)
These guidelines provide a holistic approach to addressing land issues from the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster through early recovery and reconstruction phases. It is targeted at humanitarians and land professionals, as well as government officials. It takes an inter-disciplinary approach to land, to link humanitarian emergency relief and early recovery perspectives. The guidelines provide short cases on bringing land issues into the post-disaster recovery process, tools and other references relevant to support rapid yet sustainable recovery of human settlements following a natural disaster. [The guidelines]
(WFP, July 2010)
This report highlights that, while the number of hungry people worldwide grew to more than one billion, the highest number on record, the World Food Programme (WFP) faced resource mobilization and humanitarian challenges. Nevertheless, the report points out that WFP was able to provide life-saving food and nutrition assistance for 101.8 million people affected by conflict, storms, droughts, displacement, financial crises and other shocks that left them without food, and 84 million of these beneficiaries were women and children. [The report in English, French and Spanish]
(IFAD, July 2010)
This report focuses on the views and recommendations of Africa’s farmers’ organizations for the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program, under the NEPAD’s agriculture programme, and proposes areas where policies should be reformulated. Some of the recommendations take into consideration the challenges faced by farmers in Africa such as the development of greenhouse tropical products in Europe and the United States, which compete with African products and are subsidized despite the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements; the over-indebtedness of States, which subjects them to the supervision of financial organizations and their donor countries; the increasing dependency on imports of foods not produced in Africa like wheat, beet, and oilseeds from Europe; the pressures on Africa’s natural resources, aggravated by depletion of these same resources in the North; and the mass exodus of young people from rural areas in search of jobs. The report summarizes the results of a consultative initiative involving African producers’ organizations, donors, and African regional organizations. [The report]
(UN-HABITAT, July 2010)
This report focuses on participatory planning and on engaging urban poor communities in upgrading initiatives. The report describes how participatory enumerations, a surveying method used to gain better knowledge of the needs and priorities of the community, can be applied. It presents and analyzes existing and novel applications of participatory enumerations to enhance tenure security and improve urban land management in various country cases such as Brazil, East Timor, Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Philippines, Somalia and Thailand. [The report]
(UN-HABITAT, July 2010)
This report on the Botswana Tribal Land Information and Management Systems focuses on the use of modern digital technology. It notes that the decentralization of land administration can bring benefits for the poor. The report documents challenges, opportunities, processes and lessons learned for implementing a successful land inventory. It recommends that countries planning to embark on a land inventory process should adapt to their respective jurisdictions, while taking into account the political, economic, technological, socio-cultural and institutional arrangements. [The report]
(FAO, July 2010)
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has announced free access to its online database of food, hunger and agricultural information known as the FAOSTAT. The database contains over one million data points covering 210 countries and territories. [The FAOSTAT]
(IFAD, FAO, Swiss Agency for Development, July 2010)
This report is based on a joint survey by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, (IFAD), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Swiss Agency for Development (SDC) on business models that provide opportunities for smallholders. It examines a range of business models that can be used to structure agricultural investments in lower and middle-income countries, and that provide an alternative to large-scale land acquisitions. The report focuses on models for structuring agricultural investments. [The report]
(UNCTAD, July 2010)
This report discusses the variety of institutional arrangements that are guiding and encouraging new economic relationships of Africa-South partnerships. It provides up-to-date information on African trade with other developing countries outside Africa, as well as on official financial flows and foreign direct investment into Africa from those countries. The report assesses policy issues that arise from the new relationships in each of these areas and provides recommendations to move forward such as to broaden the scope of engagement to include sectors other than the extractive industries; strengthen support for regional integration in Africa; and provide more information on development activities in the region, among others. [The report]
(WWAP and UN-HABITAT, June 2010)
This joint briefing note by the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) and the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) highlights critical water challenges related to today's unprecedented urban expansion – from providing access to basic services to ensuring environmental and human security. The note provides urban mayors, leaders and high-level decision makers with concrete policy options to meet these challenges, protect against potential water-related disasters and ensure the development of sustainable urban settlements. [The briefing note]
This report, a yearly assessment of the global progress towards the MDGs, warns that while some progress has been made, it is uneven. It highlights areas where accelerated efforts are needed to meet MDGs by 2015. Under Goal 7 on environmental sustainability, the report indicates that the world lost 13 million hectares of forest each year over the last decade, and population increases and economic growth have produced a nearly 50% increase in global CO2 emissions between 1991 and 2007, from 21.9 to 29.6 billion metric tons. The report also notes that, even though the economic crisis negatively impacted job creation and incomes around the world, the world is still on track to achieve the MDG target of cutting the rate of extreme poverty in half by 2015. The report cites some significant achievements such as getting children into primary schools in Africa countries, scaling up interventions to address AIDS, malaria and child health, and strides made to achieve the target for access to clean drinking water. [The report].
(UNDP, June 2010)
This report is based on a review of 50 country studies, and finds that the resources and know-how necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exist. The report suggests that acceleration of progress over the next five years will need to focus on continuing proven strategies, policies and interventions. It contains a chapter on MDGs in the face of crises, shocks and vulnerabilities, which underlines that sustained poverty and hunger reduction is at risk because of vulnerability to climate change, particularly in the area of agricultural production.
Another chapter on MDG acceleration strategies for developing countries addresses climate adaptation and low-carbon development. One of the key messages of the report is that supporting the diversification of livelihoods away from climate-sensitive activities is an essential MDG strategy. [The report]
(UNDESA, June 2010)
The report indicates that many of the global crises in recent years – such as the food, fuel and financial crises – are to a large extent due to major systemic failures in the global economy and weaknesses in the mechanisms for global governance. The report suggests that a sustainable rebalancing of the global economy requires closer coordination across the trading system, the new regime for international financial regulation, the global reserve system and the mechanisms for mobilizing and channeling development finance and climate funding. The report recommends that the international community consider establishing a global economic coordination mechanism that goes well beyond the Group of 20 (G20). [The report]
(UNDP, June 2010)
This report draws lessons from two decentralized energy projects in Nepal that brought modern energy services to almost a million people in remote rural communities. The projects enabled 250,000 people to be reached by micro hydropower supplying electricity for lighting and mechanical power for agro-processing and other productive activities; and 580,000 people with access to improved cooking stoves. The report underlines the importance of upfront public investment in capacity development to deliver, manage, operate and maintain the solutions to providing energy access in rural areas. It also illustrates that improving energy access accelerates the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). [Report website]
(UNWTO, June 2010)
This report, published by the UN World Tourism Organization, indicates the UNWTO is firmly committed to fostering the tourism sector’s contribution to development. Tourism accounts for 45% of the exports of services of least developed countries and is a major job generator for many of the world’s most vulnerable populations. The report notes that, in 2009, emerging economies received 410 million international tourism arrivals, a 47% share of the global total, and US$306 billion in international tourism receipts, 36% of the global total. The report argues that the tourism industry can play a significant role in the achievement of the MDGs, in particular eradication of poverty, gender equality, environmental sustainability, and global partnerships for development. [The report]
(UNCTAD, June 2010)
This report argues that South-South cooperation has the potential to enhance Africa’s capacity to deal with the challenges of poverty and poor infrastructure, development of productive capacity and emerging threats associated with climate change as well as the food, energy, financial and economic crises. In this regard, the report argues that there is a need for African countries to mainstream South-South cooperation into their development strategies to ensure that it furthers rather than hinders the achievement of national and regional development goals. [The report]
(UNPFII, June 2010)
The report of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on its ninth session held in New York from 19-20 April 2010 has been issued. The report considers the study on the impacts of the global economic crisis on indigenous peoples; the Report on indigenous peoples and corporations; the study on indigenous fishing rights in the seas; the study to determine the impact of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures on reindeer herding; the study on consideration and recognition of Mother Earth rights; and the study to determine whether climate change policies and projects adhere to the standards in the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. [The report]
(UNECA, AfDB, and AU, June 2010)
This report notes that inadequate infrastructure remains a key obstacle to intra-African trade, investments, and private-sector development. It indicates that investments on transport, communications networks, energy resources and information technology could accelerate trade progress. The report also notes that production and export structures of most African economies are geared to primary commodities such as minerals, timber, coffee, cocoa and other raw materials, for which demand is externally oriented. Sub-Saharan African countries appear to have relatively few goods to trade with each other. The report indicates that this “non-complementarity” in the African trade cannot be resolved quickly. The report.
(UNESCAP, June 2010)
This report assesses the critical issues, policy challenges and risks that the region faces and outlines the elements of a policy agenda for regaining the region’s dynamism through inclusive and sustainable growth. The report indicates that ecological imbalances are reflected in the degradation of key natural resources such as forests and freshwater, in unsustainable uses of energy and in fast growth of carbon emissions. The degradation of natural resources degradation poses challenges to the sustainability of economic growth into the long run. The report emphasizes that cooperative agreements among countries within the region are expected to increase and could include science and technology aspects, with a particular focus on drawing from experience and expertise available in East Asia regarding adapting to and mitigating climate-change challenges, improving environmental management in water, agriculture and energy resources, and building up a low carbon infrastructure that is less resource-intensive. The report.
(UNDP, June 2010)
This human development report for Kyrgyzstan, published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), stresses the need to unleash the full potential of Kyrgyzstani youth, and harness their energy to contribute to the socioeconomic and cultural development of the country. It notes that while the 2011 Country Development Strategy does not emphasize environmental safety and the global environmental threats related to climate change, energy and food crises, ensuring access of youth to modern environmentally clean technologies, teaching them to make ecologically sensitive decisions, and educating them about new ecologically sensitive technologies has become increasingly important to shape the values of future generations in Kyrgyzstan. The report.
(UNECE, UNECA, UNESCAP, UNECLAC, June 2010)
This report by the UN Regional Economic Commissions reviews the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy for climate change mitigation, including: current and projected financial flows for carbon mitigation; selected mechanisms and sources of financing such as microfinance, guarantees, debt facilities, private equity funds; and criteria for creating effective financing mechanisms. The report also provides an overview of the energy situation for each of the regions, including the legislative and regulatory framework. The report.
(WFP, June 2010)
This annual report by the World Food Programme indicates that the number of hungry people worldwide grew to more than 1 billion. It notes that more than 100 million people received food and nutrition assistance from WFP. While many people were not able to afford food, in particular the rural poorest of the poor, many were affected due to man-made disasters and natural disasters. The report indicates that, to forecast, monitor and deliver early warnings of climate-related hazards, WFP signed a memorandum of understanding with the World Meteorological Organization. The report.
(UNECOSOC, June 2010)
This report focuses on the negative effects of the global recession on the economy in Africa in 2009. It notes that growth in gross domestic product (GDP) decelerated, from 4.9% in 2008 to 2.4% in 2009, and estimates that the impact of the economic crisis on social welfare is likely to compromise progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, especially on poverty reduction, hunger, maternal and child mortality and job creation. The report also notes that Africa has the highest number of internally displaced persons and that the magnitude and frequency of climate-related disasters is likely to lead to further internal displacement. The report.
(UNDESA, May 2010)
This report notes that, although the world economy continued to improve in the first half of 2010, the pace of the recovery has not been sufficient to close the global output gap left by the financial crisis. In addition, the report indicates that the recovery has been uneven across countries. While growth prospects for a few developing countries are encouraging, economic activity is not encouraging in developed economies and even less encouraging in most of the developing world. The report highlights that macroeconomic stimulus is critical for recovery, to boost productivity and employment growth. The report.
This report, published by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), focuses on the risks faced by farmers in agriculture from natural catastrophe to market and production risks that make their incomes unstable and unpredictable from year to year and that will steadily increase with the effects of climate change. The report notes that, although risks are inherent in agriculture, they can be managed. The problem arises when farmers and rural communities cannot afford the financial services offered by private insurers to manage the risks associated with agriculture. In some cases, particularly with small-holder farmers, outside help is necessary to guarantee insurance coverage. The report.
(UNDP, May 2010)
This publication reports on the UN Development Programme work in Asia Pacific in 2009 with a focus on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction, democratic governance, human security and development in Afghanistan, crisis prevention and recovery, environment and sustainable development, partnerships and South-South cooperation. The report.
(UN Secretariat, May 2010)
The report of the twelfth session of the Committee for Development Policy has been released (E/2010/33). The report covers the following issues: impact of global crises on gender equality and the empowerment of women; international support measures available for least developed countries; support by the UN system for small island developing States, and coherence of the climate change agenda in relation not only to its own financial architecture but also with respect to other development policies; and the development progress of countries graduating from the least developed country category, namely Equatorial Guinea, Maldives and Samoa. The report.
(UNCTAD, May 2010)
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), focuses on the challenges of improving agricultural performance in Africa and the role of technology and innovation in raising agricultural production and incomes of all farmers, including smallholder farmers. The report argues that the main challenge that lies ahead is to strengthen the innovation capabilities of African agricultural systems in order to successfully address poverty, improve food security and achieve broader economic growth. The report.
(UN Secretariat, May 2010)
The report of the 16th High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation to the 65th session of the General Assembly session (A/65/39) has been released. The report contains the decisions, a summary of the Committee’s work, as well as the provisional agenda for its next session. The report highlights that the collective impact of the recent financial, food, energy and climate-change crises has imposed challenges and diminished the gains achieved by countries in past decades and further threatened the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. It notes that South-South cooperation had played a critical role in assisting developing countries to face those challenges and that countries pledged their continued support for South-South and triangular efforts. The report.
(UNDP, May 2010)
This report surveys the current state of human security in Thailand from six dimensions: economic security, food security, environmental security, health security, personal security and political security. On food security, the report notes that although food production at the current levels are sufficient in Thailand, the increase in food prices in 2008 has raised the possibility that price trends over the medium term will put the country’s food security at risk unless properly managed. On environmental security, the report notes the rapid depletion of natural resources and the need to ensure community access and ownership over the resources. The report.
(UNDP, May 2010)
This report, published by the UN Development Programme in Armenia, focuses on the issue of human mobility, the impact of poverty, inequality, security, and climate change issues in driving this process. The report details the trends in migration and their impact on the poor and vulnerable groups of the Armenian population. The report.
(World Bank and IMF, May 2010)
This report, published by the World Bank and IMF, highlights that the economic crisis slowed poverty reduction in developing countries, and is hampering progress toward the other Millennium Development Goals, including those related to hunger, child and maternal health, gender equality, access to clean water, and disease control. It notes that 53 million additional people will remain in extreme poverty by 2015. The report projects that the number of extreme poor could total around 920 million five years from now, marking a significant decline from the 1.8 billion people living in extreme poverty in 1990. The report.
This report, published by UNDP and the SNV Netherlands Development Organization, features eight case studies in Albania, Benin, Guinea Bissau, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda, and Viet Nam. It reaffirms the critical importance of providing opportunities for the participation of poor and vulnerable groups in planning, implementing and monitoring the MDGs and the interdependence between growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development. The report.
This study by the World Bank notes that, although Africa’s medium- and long-term development challenges remain large and complex, the progress underway is remarkable and undeniable. Progress is spurred by strong leadership, good governance, improved business climate, innovation, market-based solutions, engaged citizenry, and an increasing reliance on home-grown solutions. The study includes country cases from: Mali on linking farmers to markets through innovations in the value chain for mango exports; Kenya on irrigation pumps and adapting technology to development challenges; and Rwanda on the success of gorillas tourism and others. The success stories.
This report, issued by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), is the key annual reference for statistics and analysis on the latest trends in international aid. The report notes that, with only five years left to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the challenges due to the economic, food and climate change crises are mounting. The report stresses how aid should be delivered more effectively and how it can contribute to a cleaner growth process in developing countries. The report.
This policy brief addresses various dimensions of the challenges and opportunities arising from the rapid increase in the number of emerging economies due to their greater involvement in development cooperation to address global challenges such as industrial development, technology transfer and climate change. It considers whether they can build a new and more inclusive paradigm that secures faster and more sustainable development, as well as more inclusive cooperation, and translates opportunities into better voice for least developed countries. The policy brief.
(UNDESA, May 2010)
This monthly newsletter of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) features an article on the role of affordable transport in achieving sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The article notes that over one billion people living in rural areas in developing countries lack access to adequate transportation, an essential precondition for development due to its importance for accessing markets, employment, education and basic services. It also underscores that globally increased urbanization and motorization over the past several decades have resulted in an unprecedented rise in emissions, leading to degradation in living conditions worldwide and accelerating climate change. It mentions large- and small-scale transport infrastructure success stories in India and Sri Lanka. The article.
(Convention on Biological Diversity, 2009)
This guide addresses the linkages between drinking water, biological diversity and development/poverty alleviation. It aims to raise awareness of sustainable approaches to managing drinking water that have been tested globally. The guide introduces the available techniques, technologies and procedures that optimize social and environmental outcomes in the management of drinking water. It also outlines the connections between drinking water, development and biodiversity, and assists parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in strengthening national and sub-national drinking water development policies, strategies, plans and projects that integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity. Finally, it provides sources and references where readers can find more detailed information. The guide.
(UN DPI, May 2010)
The Africa Section of the UN Department of Public Information has launched its new and revamped website, “Africa Renewal.” The site provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today, including the Africa Renewal magazine, which first appeared in 1987. The web site.
(UNDP, April 2010)
This report analyzes both the risks and potential benefits to China of a shift to a low carbon economy and society, including job creation and energy efficiency. It considers the main obstacles in the short and medium term, the needs of development and transfer of technologies, and associated and opportunity costs. The report questions whether or not China can pursue a new economic, technological and social system of production and consumption that conserves energy and reduces greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining momentum on economic and social development. The report is available in English and Chinese.
(UNESCO, April 2010)
The latest issue of the “Climate Change Frontlines,” sponsored by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), features an article on the growing impact of climate change in accelerating desertification and accentuating the winter conditions for herding communities. The article highlights perspectives from Mongolian pastoralists and the Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden. The article.
(World Bank, 2010)
In order to mark the International Year of Biodiversity in 2010, this annual review focuses on the importance of biodiversity conservation in sustaining livelihoods and reducing poverty. It includes viewpoints on the importance of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, protected areas, marine biodiversity, and invasive species and poverty. Feature articles address biodiversity funding at the World Bank, ecosystem-based solutions to climate change, and making wind power safer for biodiversity. The publication reviews projects such as the Global Tiger Initiative, the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, and a World Bank-GEF-IUCN project seeking to leverage funds from private companies that use animals and plants in their logos to support species conservation efforts. It also includes regional reviews and developments on funding for biodiversity through REDD +, as well as voluntary standards. The publication.
(UNDP, April 2010)
This report describes the correlation between climate change, the energy sector and human development. It notes that both positive and negative effects of climate change require complex study, involving climate risk assessment and forecasting research on the potential impacts for the energy industry and other segments. The report indicates that the energy sector will be potentially among the hardest hit, as energy facilities in Siberia and the northern territories are vulnerable to the thawing of permafrost, which cover two-thirds of Russia’s territory. The report.
(UNOHCHR, April 2010)
This report, by the UN Human Rights office, identifies factors that contribute to poverty, including vulnerability to conflict, natural disasters, decreasing rule of law, increasing basic costs, increasing population, and food insecurity. The report makes a number of recommendations to improve Afghans’ lives, including the efficient management of scarce natural resources such as land and water manageable for irrigation. The report.
(UNECLAC, April 2010)
This report, published by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, notes that China will become the region’s second export market through the next decade. It looks at trends in trade and investment between China and the region, as Chinese demand for food, energy, metals and minerals is increasing. The report also notes that there are ample opportunities to reach trade and investment agreements in areas such as mining, energy, agriculture, infrastructure and science and technology. The report is available in Spanish.
(UN HABITAT, April 2010)
This annual report on the UN Human Settlements Programme’s 2009 activities highlights that climate change and demographic expansion have increased the challenge to cities, to sustainable urbanization and to local authorities. The report also highlights the launch of the Cities and Climate Change Initiative last year, which aims to integrate climate change mitigation into the urban agenda as it relates to land and housing, urban governance, the environment, infrastructure and basic services, housing finance and disaster-related schemes. The report.
(UNICEF, April 2010)
This report, published by the United Nations Children’s Fund, notes that almost 9 million children under the age of five died in 2008 from preventable illnesses. Half of these deaths were from pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles and AIDS. The report indicates that undernutrition is a contributing cause of more than one-third of these deaths. It also notes that an estimated 26 million people were displaced by armed conflicts and violence in 2007. Each year, up to 50 million people are displaced due to disasters, and climate change could increase these numbers. The report highlights that girls, boys and women typically are the most affected by emergencies, and displacement undermines livelihoods and social support mechanisms. The report.
(UNDP Regional Centre in Bangkok, January 2010)
The UNDP Asia-Pacific Climate, Environment, and Energy Team released its quarterly newsletter, which provides the latest updates on activities in the region. It includes updates on: new project approvals; impacts and results; policy and mainstreaming work; noteworthy climate, environment and energy announcements; events; and activities in the Pacific. The newsletter.
(UNDP Regional Centre in Panama, January 2010)
The second issue of the UNDP LAC Energy and Environmental Practice newsletter highlights environmental finance initiatives in Brazil and the Galapagos Islands; new initiatives such as the Green Commodities Facility – a global entity established to offer strategic advisory services for country offices, governments and private companies on greening commodity supply chains; and initiatives undertaken by the MDG Carbon Facility in the region. The newsletter highlights a knowledge product from El Salvador, the “Advisory Group on Climate Change, a new framework for decision making,” which has proven to be successful in facilitating dialogue, sharing knowledge and generating information to effectively position climate change in the country’s national agenda. The newsletter.
(UNECOSOC, April 2010)
This report (E/2010/26) of the 48th session of the Commission for Social Development, which convened in February 2010, summarizes the proceedings of the session, which focused on the priority theme of social integration and reviewed relevant United Nations plans and programmes of action pertaining to the situation of social groups. The report recognizes that the attainment of the social development objectives may be hindered by the economic and financial crisis, as well as challenges brought about by the food and energy crisis and by climate change. The report.
(World Bank, March 2010)
This report by the World Bank focuses on how quiet corruption is affecting the most poor, endangering Africa’s development efforts and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Through an assessment of four key sectors – education, health care, agriculture, and the private sector – it indicates that the failure of public servants to deliver goods or services paid for by governments leads to an increasingly negative expectation of service delivery systems, causing families to ignore the system. In addition, the report estimates that 43 percent of the fertilizers sold in West Africa in the 1990s were ineffective due to poor controls at the producer and wholesaler levels. The report.
(UNDESA, March 2010)
This report, published by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), focuses on reconstruction of public administrations in post-conflict situations and on relief activities after natural disasters. The report notes that the challenges in delivering public services after a natural disaster are similar to the challenges in delivering public services after conflict. It indicates that tensions over access to scarce economic and natural resources can potentially escalate in some countries and lead to more violence. The report.
(UNESCAP, March 2010)
This report, published by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), takes stock of the status of achievement of MDGs in the Asia-Pacific region and identifies key challenges, including climate-induced constraints. The report notes that environmental degradation and climate change, which can potentially increase food insecurity, lack of access to energy sources, and water scarcity disproportionately increase the burden on women and girls. The report also identifies some of the solutions to address the challenges to meet the MDGs such as social protection and regional and South-South cooperation for strengthening global partnership. The report.
(UNDP and UNIFEM, March 2010)
This report draws on good practices to elaborate key strategies for accelerating the pace for implementing gender-responsive national development plans and programmes, and for reaching the Millennium Development Goals. The report notes that, despite the adoption of the Beijing Platform for Action 15 years ago, challenges to meet gender equality still remain. It also notes that new challenges have emerged, such as the food, economic and energy crises, and climate change, which, combined with unmet ODA commitments, make it harder to achieve women’s empowerment. The report.
(WHO and UNICEF, March 2010)
This progress report, published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), provides the status of safe drinking-water and sanitation standards and the significant progress made to reach the Millennium Development Goal target of halving the number of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. The report focuses on equity issues and highlights that the vast majority of people without access to water and sanitation live in rural areas. The report.
(UNFPA, March 2010)
This report focuses on progress made since the adoption of the Beijing Platform for Action and at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The report highlights gender-equality issues relevant to climate change and ongoing global deliberations on how to address them. It notes that the UN Population Fund has engaged in a partnership with the Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA) to redress the relative lack of attention to gender issues in the analysis of, and debates on, climate change. It provides recommendations for development partners to accelerate progress towards gender mainstreaming in all Government programmes and policies. The report.
This UN Environment Programme (UNEP) report outlines the multiple challenges facing the Arab region, from climate change and food insecurity to decreasing water availability and unemployment. It provides a comprehensive and integrated assessment of the state of environment in the region, and was compiled at the request of the Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE). The report emphasizes that: the region is one of the most water-scarce in the world; biofuels and food security are among a suite of emerging and intertwined challenges facing the region; and the region is predicted to be among the hardest hit by the potential of direct and indirect climate change impacts. Report website.
(UNDP, March 2010)
This report, published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), focuses on economic power, political decision-making and legal rights to analyze what holds women back, and how policies and attitudes can be changed to foster an increase toward gender equality. According to the report, the Asia Pacific region lags behind on gender parity on multiple counts, despite progress on several other dimensions. The report looks into the impact of the global economic downturn, climate change and persistent crises as they threaten to further marginalize the most vulnerable. The report.
This report, published by the UN Human Settlements Programme, indicates that more than half of the world’s population live in urban areas, with women and girls often suffering the worst effects. The report focuses on the consequences of slum life, such as poor access to clean water, inadequate sanitation, unemployment, insecurity of tenure and gender-based violence often exacerbated at home due to stressful and over-crowded living conditions. The report.
(IFAD, February 2010)
This report, written by Marilyn Carr with Maria Hartl, reviews experiences in introducing labour-saving technologies and practices to rural women and persisting gender discrimination in access and control for the past three decades. It also examines the challenges involved and lessons that can be learned for more effective implementation as it relates to rural energy, transportation and farming practices. The report.
(UNDP, February 2010)
This report, published by the UN Development Programme Office in India, focuses on quality of life issues in the municipality of Mumbai, including population trends, economy, slums, elementary education, health and gender issues. The report discusses the issues of environmental pollution and degradation, particularly in slum areas, due to inadequate industrialization, waste management, lack of sanitation and improper water supply. The report.
(FAO, February 2010)
This tool, prepared by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, aims to assist aid agencies and NGOs to monitor the food security situation in Haiti by providing data on usable roads, crop calendars, land use, livelihood zones and damage information due to the earthquake. The tool.
(FAO, February 2010)
This database on gender and land rights, by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, provides information on national legal frameworks, including inheritance legal mechanisms, that regulate the access of women to regulated land ownership. It also includes information on international treaties and conventions, customary law land tenure and related institutions, and work of civil society organizations in selected countries as they focus on land rights and gender issues. The report.
(UNESCAP, UNDP, and ADB, February 2010)
This report, which would jointly prepared by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Asian Development Bank and the UN Development Programme, illustrates the negative impacts of the global economic crisis on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals in the Asia-Pacific region and identifies opportunities for action showing how countries can better protect themselves from future crises. The report focuses on issues from gender parity in education, and lack of access to basic sanitation and safe water. It emphasizes that, without social protection, the poor are more vulnerable to natural disasters. The report.
This study reviews progress in Latin America and the Caribbean in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It highlights that, despite the growth in protected areas and success in eliminating ozone depleting substances (ODS), high deforestation rates, which are double world averages, and sustained increase of carbon dioxide emissions in the region are impeding compliance with the seventh MDG on environmental sustainability. The report.
(UNDP, February 2010)
This report, published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), reviews factors that shape MDG progress, along with the constraints and bottlenecks that have hampered MDG achievement in many countries. The findings build on MDG assessments in 30 countries, which were undertaken for this review. The report.
(UNCTAD, February 2010)
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), focuses on the over 140 low-income and least developed countries, which account for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries. The report explores opportunities for low carbon growth, energy efficiency, and renewable energy technologies. It notes that no reduction of emissions from agriculture was included in the Kyoto Protocol or the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. It describes how market-based instruments can help reduce the impact of emissions from the agricultural sector. The report.
(UN ECLAC, February 2010)
This report, by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN ECLAC), focuses on demographic and social aspects, with special emphasis on gender, of Latin American and Caribbean countries. The report provides economic statistics, such as prices, international trade, balance of payments and national accounts. It also provides information on the environment and natural resources. The report.
(UNDESA, February 2010)
This report, published by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), aims to contribute to rethinking poverty and its eradication. It asserts the urgent need for a strategic shift away from the market fundamentalist thinking, policies and practices of recent decades towards more sustainable development and equity-oriented policies appropriate to national conditions and circumstances. The report.
(UNPFII, January 2010)
This report notes that the world’s 370 million indigenous peoples suffer from higher rates of poverty, health problems, crime and human rights abuses if compared to the non-indigenous population both in developing and developed countries. The report indicates that indigenous peoples are also more vulnerable to environmental pollution and climate change effects. It highlights that self-determination and land rights are vital for the survival of indigenous peoples. The report.
(UNDP, December 2009)
This report highlights six key interrelated challenges facing the Arab region, including: institutional reform; job creation; the promotion and financing of pro-poor growth; the reform of educational systems, economic diversification; and increased food security and self-sufficiency within existing environmental constraints. It stresses that dealing with these challenges requires the adoption of a comprehensive development model based on the human development approach which considers freedoms as the basis for development. The report.
(UNDP, December 2009)
This report analyzes the food security and food sovereignty of Arab states and the emerging challenges. It indicates that, while food security relates to the availability of nutritious food at all times, accessible to all people, food sovereignty relates to self-sufficiency of food production. It notes that the Arab region is characterized by low food sovereignty, high food insecurity, due to erratic food production, declining agriculture shares in GDP, and high levels of water scarcity.
The report also notes that climate change is expected to further exacerbate vulnerability, hunger and malnutrition levels. The report.
(UNU-MERIT, December 2009)
This working paper, written by Théophile T. Azomahou, Micheline Goedhuys and P. Nguyen Van, discusses the various relationships between CO2 emissions levels and income per capita. It notes that the majority of available studies find emissions to monotonically increase with income, because they do not account for possible feedback effects of the environment to economic growth. By analyzing data for 107 countries, over a 44 year period, the study finds that CO2 emissions first increase with income at low income levels and then become delinked with income at high income levels. The working paper.
(UNDP, December 2009)
This report, by the UNDP Regional Centre for Asia and Pacific, looks into the lessons learned from the past economic crises, the impact of the current crisis and policy responses in 14 countries in Asia Pacific. The analysis takes into consideration the rising threat of climate change and the recent experience of natural disasters in the region. The report.
(UNICEF, December 2009)
This report, by the UN Children’s Fund agency (UNICEF), evaluates the results of its programmes to mitigate the impact of the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, which left nearly 230,000 dead or missing causing social, economic and environmental devastation to already poor areas. The report emphasizes work on safe water and sanitation, the promotion of good hygiene, community-managed ecological sanitation, solid waste management, and environmental practices, particularly amongst school children. The report.
(Global Forest Coalition, December 2009)
Written by Ronnie Hall and Simone Lovera, this report addresses the question: how does the theoretical success of REDD work out on the ground, in places where legislation on biodiversity is weak, and where safeguards to protect the rights of Indigenous Peoples hardly exist? The report.
This paper, written by Vikram Kolmannskog, on climate change, disaster, displacement and migration, is based on evidence from two African countries, Burundi and Somalia, that are among the most vulnerable countries in the world. It emphasizes that disasters and degradation can trigger displacement and conflicts, which can further accentuate environmental degradation. The paper.
This primer, co-authored by Barbara Adams and Gretchen Luchsinger, sheds light on the discussion of equity and justice in the context of the climate change debate, and argues that climate justice is not only an ethical imperative, but an economic and social one. The publication gathers research and analysis from various international organizations and civil society to demonstrate that the climate agenda needs to be jointly addressed with the need to achieve poverty reduction and respect human rights. The primer.
This guidance note on climate change aims to integrate human development analysis and advocacy into more equitable, sustainable and climate-resilient development planning and policy debates. The note emphasizes how short-term and long-term effects of climate change threaten peopleï¿½s abilities to lead long and healthy lives and to have a decent standard of living, as well as the overall impact on achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It provides practical suggestions on ways that national reports can complement existing climate change responses and broader development initiatives. The guidance note.
(UNECE, December 2009)
This report, by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), presents major current and projected climate changes in the UNECE region, which spans North America, Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, and Israel. The changes include increased or decreased precipitation, forest fires, changes in ecosystems, sea-level rise, malaria risks and impacts on agriculture. The report.
The report looks into the impacts that climate change is having on Moldovaï¿½s environment, society and economy. According to the report, developing countries are more vulnerable to these impacts, have fewer resources with which to adapt and to recover losses caused by extreme weather events and are in general more dependent upon the environment for their citizensï¿½ livelihoods. As a result, climate change poses a serious threat to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to which Moldova has committed. The report.
This report, by the International Labour Organization, projects that, unless adequate measures are adopted, more than 40 million people could drop out of the labour market due to the effects of the financial crisis. The report indicates that the risk is especially acute for the low-skilled and older workers, and that high-quality jobs have been lost and the informal economy is increasing in developing countries. The report recommends an integrated package of policies that combines employment and social protection at the centre of crisis responses. The report.
This policy brief, by the United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT), focuses on the long-term policy commitments that are needed to combat climate change and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. It argues that the global community should accelerate and coordinate investments on R&D that reduce marginal costs of GHG emissions control. The policy brief.
THE RURAL WATER LIVELIHOODS INDEX
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