published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat.
Special Report on Selected Side Events at SB 22
19-27 May 2005 | Bonn, Germany
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Tuesday 24
Wednesday 25
Thursday 26
Brief Analysis

Events convened on Tuesday, 24 May 2005

Enabling climate change action in the north: Targets, instruments and strategies

Presented by the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy

Bernd Brouns, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy (WICEE), indicated that industrialized countries must make larger emissions cuts and assist developing countries with mitigation and adaptation. He noted the need for further “differentiation” among industrialized countries in any post-2012 climate regime and called for an open, transparent and systematic framework that takes into account differing national circumstances. Highlighting that the negotiation of mitigation and financial transfer commitments should be separate, Brouns outlined a model for the allocation of emissions targets based on historical responsibility, mitigation potential, and capability. He proposed a second rationale for allocating responsibility for assisting developing countries, premised on capability and said its application would largely reflect the current UNFCCC Annex II. Identifying a need to re-evaluate the Annex I and non-Annex I distinction in the long term, he underscored that a rational categorization of countries could facilitate negotiations and indicate what a fair agreement would look like.

Stefan Lechtenböhmer, WICEE, identified the enlarged EU’s potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020. Discussing the business-as-usual emissions projections for different sectors, he highlighted a 133% growth in aviation emissions. He noted that energy efficiency has improved in the EU but called for new measures as this trend is estimated to decrease. He stressed the need for a comprehensive strategy that, inter alia, increases the share of renewable energies to 20.1% and addresses: energy efficiency; combined heat and power; and the transport sector, especially aviation. He indicated that emissions trading must be combined with technology and sector-specific policies, and proposed an emissions allocation with a yearly cap of -2.8%.

Ralf Schüle, WICEE, outlined a new project focusing on the potential and risks of linking EU emissions trading with emerging domestic schemes. He said the project aims to analyze the economic and ecological impacts of such linkages as well as institutional compatibility and the relationship with the Kyoto process.

Hermann Ott, WICEE, said emissions trading and an international structure to promote renewable energy could add to the Kyoto Protocol as other “pillars” for sound international climate policy.

Stefan Lechtenböhmer, WICEE, said the EU’s energy-related carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by 30% by 2020
More information:
Bernd Brouns
<[email protected]>
Stefan Lechtenböhmer <[email protected]>
Ralf Schüle <[email protected]>
Hermann Ott <[email protected]>

Application of Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to the French forests

Presented by France

Thierry Bélouard, National Forest Inventory, discussed land observation and forest inventory activities in mainland France, specifying that France uses the Food and Agriculture Organization’s definition of forests. He highlighted the various means of survey employed for land observation: the “land use and cover area;” the French National Forest Inventory; and the European observation systems. He indicated that carbon stocks and forest changes relate to: above and below ground biomass; deadwood and litter; and organic soil stock.

Michel Deshayes, French Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Environmental Engineering, presented on satellite-based observations of the French Guyanese forest. He explained that France is the only Annex I party with tropical forests and outlined the following forest-related activities: shifting cultivation; modern agriculture; gold-mining activities; the Piet Saut dam construction; and selective forest logging by the French forestry board. He highlighted interpretation difficulties in the Kyoto Protocol related to Article 3.3 activities for long-term sustainable agro-forestry and gold mining. In discussing earth observations of forest-related activities Deshayes recommended the use of high resolution optical imagery. He listed challenges to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol on forest activities, including: the impact of clouds in capturing images; the lack of satellite data after 2008; and out of date inventories for timber and pulp.

Thelma Krug, Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, presented on the Brazilian experience in using remotely-sensed data for forest inventories and indicated that Brazil has a long history of using such data for assessing area changes in forests, specifying that gross estimates had systematically started in 1988. She stated that the potential use of remotely-sensed data for Articles 3.3 and 3.4 activities includes: forest identification and quantification; land-use changes; estimates of above ground biomass; provision of systematic observations of land cover; and detection and spatial quantification of land changes.

Discussion: Participants discussed: quantifying carbon stock after gold mining; developing follow-up programmes; linking remotely-sensed and ground data; and the one hectare forest definition issue.

Thierry Bélouard, National Forest Inventory, discussed land observation and forest inventory in mainland France
Thierry Bélouard <[email protected]>
Michel Deshayes <[email protected]>
Thelma Krug <[email protected]>

Lessons learned from greenhouse gas inventories capacity-building in Central America

Presented by the US

Carey Yeager, US Agency for International Development (USAID), explained that USAID’s Regional Climate Change Programme is coordinated with other agencies through the Central American Commission for Environment and Development in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Mirza Castro, National Program on Climate Change, Honduras, said the US-Central American “greenhouse gas inventory project” aims to improve inventories, through: supporting the development of emission factors; technical training activities; and the development of tools for adaptation to local circumstances.

In discussing the national reporting guidelines for non-Annex I parties, Javier Hanna Figueroa, UNFCCC, outlined tools that non-Annex I parties can draw on in preparing inventories. Bill Irving, EPA, discussed the template approach to building inventory management capacity, and emphasized that the process of preparing a national inventory report can be as useful as the report itself.

Marina Stadthagen, Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of Nicaragua, said the greenhouse gas inventory project has helped to: improve the quality of greenhouse gas data in the agricultural and land use sectors; foster the creation of a national inventory system; and strengthen institutional frameworks for inventory development. René López, Climate Change Unit of Panama, said Panama’s participation in the greenhouse gas inventory project included work on: climate data; crop statistics; livestock data; a digital soil map; a 2000 land cover map; and a land-use database. Stephen Ogle, Colorado State University, demonstrated a greenhouse gas inventory software tool developed for use in the agricultural and land use sectors in Central America.

Marina Stadthagen, Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of Nicaragua, said that the US-Central American greenhouse gas inventory project is timely for Nicaragua as it begins work on its second national communication
Discussion: A representative from Guatemala noted that ongoing issues include: calculating emissions to identify new sources for 2000; identifying key actors; developing institutional arrangements; and training experts in inventory development and the use of reporting guidelines. A Costa Rican representative said the capacity to monitor greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing climate mitigation policies. Another participant asked about replicating the project beyond Central America.

Mirza Castro, National Program on Climate Change, Honduras , said the US-Central American greenhouse gas inventory project supports the development of emission factors, technical training activities, and the development of inventory tools

Bill Irving, US EPA, emphasized that the US-Central American greenhouse gas inventory project involves Central American and US experts working together to improve inventories

Carey Yeager <[email protected]>
Mirza Castro <[email protected]>
Javier Hanna Figueroa <[email protected]>
Bill Irving <[email protected]>
Marina Stadthagen <[email protected]>
René López <[email protected]>
Stephen Ogle <[email protected]>

LULUCF in future commitment periods

Presented by the Max-Planck Institute

Anke Herold, Öko-Institute, identified options for “key rules” for including land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) activities in a post-2012 climate regime. She noted the need to choose between a joint target for all sectors or a separate LULUCF target, and to define: anthropogenic emissions and removals; accounting rules; and the inclusion of LULUCF in flexibility mechanisms. She mentioned the advantages of some of the options for “key rules”, namely: a joint target for all sectors; including only managed areas; and the inclusion of all LULUCF activities.

Niklas Höhne, Ecofys, highlighted that LULUCF emissions are a significant part of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. He identified the impact of land-use change and forestry emissions (LUCF) on parties’ emissions and commitments if applying “contraction and convergence” and “multi-stage setting” approaches in a future climate regime. He noted that the decision as to whether to include LUCF activities has important consequences for some developing countries, in particular Brazil and Indonesia.

Hannes Böttcher, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, discussed options for the definition of “forest management” activities and accounting rules in light of the Marrakesh Accords and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF. He outlined the model and data used in a German case study and highlighted the effects of different options on accountable areas and carbon stock changes.

Discussion: Participants discussed the impact of different accounting methods on countries’ LULUCF emissions, the necessity to take action on deforestation, and the possible impact of economic incentives such as carbon trading.

Niklas Höhne, ECOFYS, indicated that whether emissions from land-use change and forestry are included will affect the timing and scale of required emissions reductions
Anke Herold <[email protected]>
Niklas Höhne <[email protected]>
Hannes Böttcher <[email protected]>

EU side event on Article 6

Presented by Luxembourg

Ylva Tiveus, European Commission, outlined two surveys, namely the Eurobarometer, and an EU survey of member countries’ climate change campaigns aimed at identifying progress achieved and possible partners for communication measures. Luc Dries, Federal Public Service for the Environment, Belgium, presented the Belgian clean car campaign, following the EU passenger car strategy on carbon dioxide emissions. He said the objective was to encourage the purchase of low-emitting cars by providing a booklet and a web-based tool with emissions information on different car models. He highlighted lessons learned, including the need for complementary instruments, and positive and humoristic solution-oriented messages.

Marie Jaudet, Interministerial Task-Force for Climate Change, France, outlined the French mobilization campaign on energy saving and climate change. She indicated some of the motivations for the campaign, inter alia, that: energy management and climate change prevention is a national challenge; climate change has to be understood by all players; and social acceptance of measures depends on awareness raising. She explained that the campaign focused on creating a humoristic slogan to change behavior and outlined actions taken, including: television commercials; press releases; local radio programmes; and information booklets. She stated that following the television campaign, 54% of the population surveyed had changed at least one of their daily routines.

Michael Kracht, Federal Environment Ministry, Germany, outlined Germany’s experience in raising awareness on climate change in schools. He said teaching support material had been developed focusing on: climate science and scenarios; carbon dioxide emitters; and impacts of climate change. He outlined Germany’s climate campaign to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in private households by focusing on heating systems and insulation, using efficient energy appliances, and encouraging sustainable modes of transport. He indicated that web-based tools, media coverage, and climate quizes for children has been used for this campaign.

Luc Dries, Federal Public Service for the Environment, Belgium, stated that 39.000 copies of the clean car campaign guide have been distributed
Ylva Tiveus <[email protected]>
Luc Dries <[email protected]>
Marie Jaudet <[email protected]>
Michael Kracht <[email protected]>
The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <[email protected]> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Ingrid Barnsley, Alice Bisiaux, Maria Larsson Ortino, and Kati Kulovesi. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Lisa Schipper, Ph.D. <[email protected]>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <[email protected]>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC SB 22 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <[email protected]>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from SB 22 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at SB 22 can be contacted by e-mail at <[email protected]>.

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