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Climate Change Policy & Practice
Climate Change Policy & Practice
Coverage of Selected Side Events at the
Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013

3-13 June 2013 | Bonn, Germany

Daily web coverage (click on the following links to see our daily web pages)
Side Events (ENBOTS) Coverage on Wednesday, 12 June 2013
Participant and panelist in discussion during the side event on The Social Dimension
of Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries: Tackling the Fairness Gap.

The following side events were covered by ENBOTS on Wednesday, 12 June 2013.

A Near-Term Action Plan for the Cryosphere

Presented by the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI) and Clean Air Task Force (CATF)
Elisabetta Vignati, European Commission, DG-JRC, explained that focusing on the short-lived climate forcers such as ozone, methane and black carbon would provide immediate effects, as opposed to CO2, which has a long lifetime in the atmosphere.
Michael Sparrow, Executive Director, SCAR, stressed that understanding the Earth’s climate requires knowledge on what happens in Antarctica.
Noting that air pollution and climate change issues are linked through black carbon, Jayaraman Srinivasan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, said that research indicates a positive relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and health problems.

This side event addressed black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers and their mitigation potential, particularly to slow warming in cryosphere regions such as the Arctic, the Himalayas and the Andes. Moderating the session, Pam Pearson, Director, ICCI, recalled the preliminary results of new modeling based on the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) assessment, saying they offer new hope and direction for the Earth’s cryosphere.

Michael Sparrow, Executive Director, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), noted that, although the ozone hole has shielded much of Antarctica from global warming, parts of the Antarctic are losing ice at a rapid rate. He said this will likely contribute to sea level rise over the next century, though by how much is still uncertain. He stressed the need for a better reflection of polar processes and non-linear transitions in models in order to improve predictions.

Addressing the issue of black carbon and climate change in the tropics, Jayaraman Srinivasan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, discussed the scientific concerns over direct and indirect impacts of black carbon on monsoon rainfall and glacier melting.

Elisabetta Vignati, European Commission, Directorate General (DG) Joint Research Centre (JRC), presented further work based on the preliminary results of the UNEP/WMO Assessment reports, which identified 16 reduction measures to be implemented by 2030. Analyzing the impacts measure-by-measure and regionally through the cryosphere lens, she stressed substantial impacts on: health, particularly in India; food production, especially in the Indian region, China and South Eastern Asia; and on direct aerosol forcing.

In the ensuing discussions, the panel addressed questions on: vulnerability of ice shields and contribution to sea level rise in the next centuries; measures undertaken in the State of Kerala to reduce black carbon and plans to up-scale these measures across India; concerns about opening up the Arctic to oil and gas exploration; and sulfate emissions.

Panel (L-R):  Pam Pearson, Director, ICCI; Elisabetta Vignati, European Commission, DG JRC; Michael Sparrow, Executive Director, SCAR; Jayaraman Srinivasan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; Bill Collins, University of Reading; Kaveh Zahedi, UNEP; and Surya Sethi, National University of Singapore.
More Information:


Pam Pearson (Coordinator)
[email protected]

Kate Cahoon, GenderCC, identified the difficulty in establishing causality between emissions sources and climate impacts as a major challenge in applying human rights instruments for climate change.
Simone Lovera, GFC, noted that 55% of all land grabs were triggered by bioenergy needs, thereby threatening food security of women farmers.
Using the example of feed-in tariffs in Germany, Gotelind Alber, GenderCC, noted the distributional impacts by illustrating how men benefit from the new jobs and investment opportunities.

This side event, moderated by Gotelind Alber, GenderCC, discussed: rights-based approaches to climate change; impacts of mitigation policies on women, including adaptation co-benefits; and using culture to promote resilience.

Alber highlighted that linkages between gender issues and social factors need to be considered in climate policy, including: vulnerability to the impacts of climate change; carbon footprint; capability to reduce emissions; perceptions; behavior and motivations; participation in decision-making; and socioeconomic impacts of policies and measures.

Kate Cahoon, GenderCC, referred to the Cancun Agreements as a major breakthrough, as they incorporate rights-based language in addressing climate change. She stressed the need to address human rights as an entry point for mitigation efforts, instead of seeing it as being counterproductive.

Simone Lovera, Global Forest Coalition (GFC), highlighted the negative effects of biofuels, such as increases in food prices leading to hunger and malnutrition, and health impacts of air pollution resulting from biomass incinerators. She called for cutting subsidies for bioenergy and promoting Indigenous Peoples’ rights. She lamented the commodification of community values through market-based instruments.

Ahsan Ahmed, Centre for Global Change, illustrated how low-carbon interventions can transform the status of women by creating opportunities for them to exert rights. Presenting a case study from Bangladesh, he said the Green Brick Project resulted in increased job security while providing adaptation co-benefits for women.

Kuini Rabo, Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), used the example of a case study from Kiribati to illustrate how culture can be used to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using traditional knowledge to revive and promote alternative energy sources and economic activities.

Alber offered some conclusions, inter alia, the need to: institutionalize gender participation; recognize and address gender roles; integrate gender and social dimensions from the beginning and at all levels of programming; and incentivize robust actions even if quantification of gender-related effects is not possible.

Participants discussed: the feasibility of bringing the human rights frameworks into climate negotiations; women entrepreneurs and sustainable business; interlinking national and international level action on human rights; and how climate projects could change power relations.

Panel (L-R):  Gotelind Alber, GenderCC; Ahsan Ahmed, Centre for Global Change; Kuini Rabo, SPC; Kate Cahoon, GenderCC; and Simone Lovera, GFC.
More Information:


Gotelind Alber (Coordinator)
[email protected]

Paul Bodnar, US State Department, noted the tension between the need for finance in the poorest countries and higher mitigation potential in larger developing countries.
Smita Nakhooda, ODI, highlighted existing trade-offs between the pace of disbursement of climate finance and the quality of programme design.
Jochen Harnisch, KfW Development Bank, indicated the need for public finance by noting that 65% of the countries fall into high financial risk categories.

This side event, moderated by Jochen Harnisch, KfW Development Bank, focused on climate finance needs, tools and institutions for delivery, and lessons learned on the effectiveness of existing funds.

Mark Lutes, WWF Global Climate and Energy Initiative, highlighted the increased importance of public finance for mitigating climate change given the current financial and economic constraints worldwide. He stressed that discussions surrounding absorptive capacity, the need for planning and enabling environments, among others, should not delay countries in making pledges towards the US$100 billion commitment.

Paul Bodnar, US Department of State, focused on how public finance could be used effectively to meet mitigation finance needs to address two gaps, the prevailing attractiveness of conventional technologies in comparison with low-carbon technologies, and the high-risk profile of developing countries despite their need for investments. Bodnar underlined the need to consider different levels of comparative advantage across financial institutions for utilizing tools such as risk mitigation and low-cost debt. He noted the importance of thinking about how to scale down financing for carbon intensive energy sources, in addition to scaling-up green finance.

Smita Nakhooda, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), shared insights on climate finance effectiveness based on existing funds, inter alia, how the level and type of funding affect the scope of operations, and the context the fund is set up in. She underscored the importance of understanding the diversity of scales at which funds work, by exemplifying the evolution of partnerships between global funds and local actors.

Harnisch highlighted the need for a simple and predictable international framework with limited policy interventions to scale up the green economy. He called for clear differentiation between instruments and their use according to country risks.

During discussions, participants reflected on: pioneers to champion investment in high risk countries; innovation in financial institutions; implications of the carbon price collapse on climate policy credibility; domestic mobilization of climate finance; lessons from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); and drawing lessons from ongoing experimental funds.

Panel (L-R):  Mark Lutes, WWF Global Climate and Energy Initiative; Paul Bodnar, US Department of State; Smita Nakhooda, Climate and Energy Programme, ODI; and Jochen Harnisch, KfW Development Bank.
More Information:


Florian Wieneke (Coordinator)
[email protected]

Marina Maiero, WHO, said that many health-enhancing strategies to reduce SLCPs cost little or may save money over their lifetime.
Recalling that black carbon is the second most important climate forcer, Mark Radka, UNEP, stated that 20% of black carbon emissions arise from the transport sector.
Nurul Quadir, Bangladesh, said rapid implementation of measures to reduce SLCPs offer opportunities for Bangladesh to: improve public health; reduce crop yield loss; and slow down the rate of near-term climate changes and regional circulation and rainfall patterns.

This session, moderated by Kaveh Zahedi, Interim Head of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) Secretariat, discussed the CCAC’s work on reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) to protect human health and the environment in the short term, and slow the rate of climate change in the first half of this century.

Opening the event, Dan McDougall, Environment Canada, stressed that the CCAC: is a good example of the science-policy interface; partner countries are committed to both domestic and international action; and is open to countries and non-state actors. He emphasized Canada joined the CCAC because of the solid scientific basis of its work, its practical actions and consequent immediate effects.

Zahedi noted compelling scientific evidence, including that SLCPs: are responsible for a substantial fraction of near-term climate change; have detrimental impacts on public health, agriculture and ecosystems; and mitigation brings multiple benefits to the climate, health and development. He emphasized that SLCP actions need to be complemented by deep and rapid cuts in CO2 emissions, if the global mean temperature increase over the 21st century is to be limited to below 2°C.

Markus Amann, CCAC Scientific Advisory Panel, indicated new scientific findings, including: stronger evidence that air pollution has serious health impacts; better understanding of the relative impacts of black carbon; and new quantitative information on the potentially important impacts of kerosene lamps, flaring in the Arctic and diesel generators.

Marina Maiero, World Health Organization (WHO), underlined that reducing SLCPs such as black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone can prevent a significant proportion of the estimated six million deaths annually from air pollution related diseases. She added that the WHO has applied to become a member of the CCAC.

Felicity Creighton Spors, World Bank, presented recommendations from a World Bank report, including: paying for methane emission reductions as a climate finance pilot project to deliver a “quick win” in the short term; scaling-up methane mitigation actions of multilateral development banks in the medium term; and applying the pay-for-performance principle to methane-related Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the long term.

Indicating black carbon from heavy duty vehicles is a priority area, Mark Radka, UNEP, noted measures to reduce black carbon, such as introduction of ultra low sulfate diesel fuels and higher standards for vehicle engines.

Terri Wills, C40-CCI Cities, discussed the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Initiative, saying its objective is to work with cities around the world to implement new actions to reduce SLCP emissions, mainly methane and black carbon, from the waste sector. She said cities have the power to: set policies and enforce regulation; control budgets and levy charges; and set the vision.

Nurul Quadir, Bangladesh, presented high priority measures from the Bangladesh National Action Plan for reducing SLCPs, including: elimination of high-emitting vehicles in road transport; incentives to encourage switching from diesel to compressed natural gas; introduction of improved cook stoves; replacement of traditional brick kilns with modern technologies; and introduction of improved rice parboiling technology.

The ensuing discussions touched upon issues such as measurements of SLCPs and their contribution to climate change and accounting in GHG inventories.

Panel (L-R):  Kaveh Zahedi, Interim Head of the CCAC Secretariat; Felicity Creighton Spors, World Bank; Terri Wills, C40-CCI Cities; Nurul Quadir, Bangladesh; and Mark Radka, UNEP.
Panel (L-R):  Markus Amann, CCAC Scientific Advisory Panel; Dan McDougall, Environment Canada; and Marina Maiero, WHO.
More Information:


Fanina Kodre (Coordinator)
[email protected]

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <[email protected]> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the European Commission (EC). This issue has been written by Anna Schulz, Mihaela Secrieru and Asterios Tsioumanis. The Digital Editor is Brad Vincelette. The Editor is Liz Willetts <[email protected]>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <[email protected]>. Support for the publication of ENBOTS at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013 has been provided by the EC. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <[email protected]>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013 can be contacted by e-mail at <[email protected]>.

Daily web coverage (click on the following links to see our daily web pages)

Related Links

UNFCCC resources

*Side events website

*List of side events

Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013 resources

*Meeting website

*Overall schedule

*Subsidiary Bodies workshops and events

*SBI 38 website

*SBI 38 annotated agenda

*SBI 38 documents

*SBI 38 workshops

*SBSTA 38 website

*SBSTA 38 annotated agenda

*SBSTA 38 documents

*SBSTA 38 workshops

*ADP 2-2 website

*ADP 2-2 agenda

*ADP 2-2 documents

*ADP 2-2 workshops

General resource

*Gateway to the UN System’s Work on Climate Change

IISD RS resources

*IISD RS coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - April 2013, 29 April - 3 May 2013, Bonn, Germany

*IISD RS summary report of the UNFCCC Expert Meeting on Technology Roadmaps and Fifth Meeting of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC), 25 and 26-27 March 2013, Bonn, Germany (Technology Roadmaps summary: HTML - PDF) (TEC summary: HTML - PDF)

*IISD RS coverage of the Doha Climate Change Conference - November 2012, 26 November - 8 December 2012, Doha, Qatar

*IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Doha Climate Change Conference - November 2012, 26 November - 7 December 2012, Doha, Qatar

*IISD RS coverage of the Bangkok Climate Change Conference - August 2012, 30 August - 5 September 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

*IISD RS coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - May 2012, 14-25 May 2012, Bonn, Germany

*IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - May 2012, 14-25 May 2012, Bonn, Germany

*IISD RS coverage of the Durban Climate Change Conference - November 2011, 28 November - 11 December 2011, Durban, South Africa

*IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Durban Climate Change Conference - November 2011, 28 November - 9 December 2011, Durban, South Africa

*CLIMATE-L - A mailing list for news on climate change policy

*Climate Change Policy & Practice - A Knowledgebase of UN and Intergovernmental Activities Addressing Global Climate Change Policy

*Linkages Update - Bi-weekly international environment and sustainable development news
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