Daily report for 6 November 2022
Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference - November 2022
The Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference opened with a shared sense of urgency, as many speakers underscored the devastating climate impacts that manifested this year. Speeches during the opening ceremony recalled the pressing messages from climate science, pointed out the current geopolitical challenges and their effects on energy and food systems, and underscored the necessity of focusing on implementation. All bodies launched their substantive work and, in the afternoon, informal consultations convened under various bodies. A joint opening plenary also convened to hear statements from parties and observers.
COP 26 President Alok Sharma highlighted recent reports suggesting that full implementation of current commitments will set the world on track to limit average global temperature increase to 1.7°C. Acknowledging this as insufficient, he urged world leaders to explain clearly what they have achieved in the last year and how they will go further.
COP 27 President Sameh Shoukry said recent extreme events all over the world are another wake-up call to act with all precaution in accordance with commitments and targets. He urged moving from negotiations and pledges to implementation, including scaling up ambition according to countries’ capacities. Shoukry also noted the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Summit starting Monday, 7 November, at the level of Heads of State and Government.
UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell observed that while “Paris gave us the agreement and Katowice and Glasgow gave us the plan, Sharm El-Sheikh shifts us to implementation,” underscoring that no one can be “a mere passenger.” He outlined three critical lines of action: demonstrating a transformational shift to implementation; cementing progress on workstreams on mitigation, adaptation, finance, and loss and damage; and enhancing delivery on the principles of transparency and accountability throughout the process.
Cautioning that the world is not on track to limit global warming to 1.5°C, Hoesung Lee, Chair, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), urged collective action, stressing that the range of options and time available will not be at the disposal of future leaders and policymakers.
Pakistan, for the G-77/CHINA, stressed that addressing loss and damage “is not charity; it is climate justice.” He listed priorities including: agreeing on an institutional structure and operational modalities for loss and damage assistance; delivering on the USD 100 billion commitment to rebuild trust; and making progress on the amount and timelines for the new collective quantified goal on climate finance; and the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA).
The EUROPEAN UNION expressed disappointment at the lack of consensus for dedicated discussions on limiting global warming to 1.5°C and aligning global financial flows with the Paris Agreement. He called on developed countries to “step up” to deliver the collective finance goal and highlighted action on loss and damage as crucial.
Switzerland, for the ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY GROUP, warning that a COP in Africa “must not be the COP where we lose 1.5°C,” called for: a robust mitigation work programme; delivery on the “homework from Glasgow” to phase down unabated coal and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies; and progress on the technical rules on markets, ensuring human rights and environmental integrity.
Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, noted the group is not coordinating with the Russian Federation and Belarus. She emphasized, among others: a robust work programme for greater ambition to keep 1.5°C alive; achieving the USD 100 billion goal imminently; aligning finance flows with global temperature goals; and operationalizing the Santiago Network on loss and damage. She welcomed the new agenda item on funding arrangements for loss and damage.
Zambia, for the AFRICAN GROUP, highlighted the special needs and circumstances of Africa. Saying adaptation is a matter of survival for the continent, he called for scaling up adaptation action and a substantive GGA outcome. He sought new, additional, predictable, grant-based and concessional financing and fulfillment of the USD 100 billion goal.
Antigua and Barbuda, on behalf of the ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES (AOSIS), observed that “our financial system has been built around the fossil fuel industry and it is cheaper to destroy the planet than to save it.” He stressed the inclusion of an agenda item on loss and damage is “not a favor” and underscored that what parties seek is collaborative action to keep 1.5°C alive.
Senegal, on behalf of the LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs), noted that the world is simultaneously curbing global warming while adapting to a warmer planet, which requires significantly more finance. She stressed the need to focus not only on adaptation, but also on loss and damage, underscoring that “those who are suffering from the climate crisis cannot wait for negotiators to deliver.”
Venezuela, for the BOLIVARIAN ALLIANCE FOR THE PEOPLES OF OUR AMERICA (ALBA), urged: implemention of developed countries’ commitments and responsibilities; living in harmony with nature; protecting biodiversity; and ending pollution.
Colombia, for the INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATION OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (AILAC), called for: science to underpin all actions; addressing shortcomings in the quantity and quality of climate finance; and concrete results on loss and damage, including access to specific and additional finance.
Saudi Arabia, for the ARAB GROUP, emphasized the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and an equitable and balanced approach that covers all articles of the Paris Agreement, and called for progress under all sub-items of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.
Bolivia, for the LIKE-MINDED GROUP OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (LMDCs), drew attention to the deepening climate injustice and lamented that developed countries are “systematically trying to shift the burden on developing countries.” He called for, inter alia, a definition of climate finance, doubling of adaptation finance, a substantive decision on the GGA, operationalization of the Santiago Network, and funding arrangements for loss and damage.
Calling for COP 27 to be above all, an “implementation COP,” Brazil, for ARGENTINA, BRAZIL and URUGUAY (ABU), stressed the need for substantive advancement on finance, adaptation, and loss and damage.
Papua New Guinea, for the COALITION FOR RAINFOREST NATIONS, highlighted that rainforest nations have already delivered more than 9 Gigatons in removals via reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).
South Africa, for BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA and CHINA (BASIC), said COP 27 should focus on ways to practically assist countries in implementing their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). He urged developed countries to honor their commitments, and called on all countries to forge a multilateral response to adapt to climate change and assist one another in dealing with the associated loss and damage.
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES (LGMA) called for COP 27 to mark the start of a multilevel action era.
RESEARCH AND INDEPENDENT NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (RINGOs) urged parties to act with the urgency dictated by science, including via NDC revisions and support for adaptation and resilience.
TRADE UNION NGOS (TUNGOs) said implementing just transition policies and measures builds trust and called on G20 countries to step up action.
WOMEN AND GENDER called for advancing gender-responsive policies, rapid structural transformations, and climate justice.
BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY NGOs (BINGOs) urged: a clear roadmap for business investment; fulfilling the USD 100 billion commitment; and enabling full operationalization of Article 6.
CHILDREN AND YOUTH drew attention to the Global Youth Statement and lamented that accessibility to COPs remains a challenge.
Climate Action Network, for ENVIRONMENTAL NGOs (ENGOs), said the global climate crisis and the loss and damage it causes affects the rights of millions of people across the world and drew attention to the plight of climate activists and human rights defenders.
Demand Climate Justice, for ENGOs, called for a loss and damage funding facility based on public funds, just transitions, and a conflict of interest policy for the UNFCCC process.
FARMERS urged inclusive and ambitious NDCs that take into account farmers’ needs and expectations and stressed the importance of the Koronivia joint work on agriculture.
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES called for fulfilling Indigenous Peoples’ internationally recognized rights, including the right to full partnership and participation in all UNFCCC bodies.
Conference of the Parties (COP)
Organizational Matters: Rules of procedure: Parties agreed to apply the draft rules of procedure (FCCC/CP/1996/2), with the exception of draft rule 42 on voting. On voting, BANGLADESH expressed hope this issue will be resolved and underscored that consensus means broad agreement rather than agreement by all. The COP 27 Presidency will hold consultations.
Adoption of the agenda: Shoukry noted consultations on the agenda had lasted over 48 hours and outlined the Presidency’s proposals regarding the new agenda items proposed by parties. On the proposal by the G-77/China relating to funding arrangements responding to loss and damage, Shoukry proposed, and parties agreed to, a revised title and footnote in the COP and CMA agendas. Shoukry noted: the outcomes of this item do not involve liability or compensation; this item includes the Glasgow Dialogue; and this will launch a process with a view to adopting a conclusive decision no later than 2024.
The Presidency will hold consultations on a proposal for the CMA agenda by the African Group regarding the special needs and circumstances of Africa and the outcome will be reported under the CMA item on Other Matters. The Presidency will also hold consultations on Georgia’s proposal on equitable geographic representation in constituted bodies under the Convention, with the outcome to be reported under the COP item on Other Matters.
Presidency-led consultations will convene on the inclusion of the following proposed items:
- Article 2.1(c) of the Paris Agreement, proposed by the EU and EIG, for addition to the CMA agenda;
- The seventh review of the Financial Mechanism, proposed by the US, for addition to the CMA agenda;
- Limiting global warming to 1.5°C, proposed by the EIG for addition to the CMA agenda; and
- The implementation of Decisions 1/CP.26, paragraph 11 and 1/CMA.3, paragraph 18 on adaptation finance, proposed by the G-77/China, for addition to the COP and CMA agendas.
The Presidency proposed and parties agreed to hold in abeyance: the proposals from the Russian Federation, and Papua New Guinea and Mexico relating to the consideration of proposals from Parties for amendments to the Convention under Article 15 (on amendments to the Convention); and the second review of the adequacy of Article 4.2(a–b) of the Convention (on mitigation by developed country parties).
The COP adopted the agenda (FCCC/CP/2022/1/Add.2).
Shoukry observed that the inclusion of an item on funding arrangements for loss and damage reflects solidarity and empathy with the victims of climate-induced disasters, thanking activists and civil society organizations who have consistently demanded space to discuss this, providing impetus to bring this forward.
Election of officers other than the President: This item will be taken up in the COP closing plenary.
Admission of organizations as observers: The COP admitted the organizations listed in FCCC/CP/2022/7 as observers.
Organization of work: The COP agreed to defer the consideration of the item on reporting from, and review, of Annex I parties to COP 28.
In addition to the agenda items already included on the SBs’ agendas, the COP decided to refer to the SBs, the review of the progress, effectiveness, and performance of the Adaptation Committee; and to refer to the SBI the consideration of the annual report on gender composition and synthesis report on the implementation of gender-responsive climate policies.
Contact groups will convene on:
- Long-term climate finance;
- Matters relating to the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF);
- Report of, and guidance to, the Green Climate Fund (GCF);
- Report of, and guidance to, the Global Environment Facility (GEF); and
- Seventh review of the Financial Mechanism.
Informal consultations will convene on matters relating to funding arrangements responding to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including a focus on addressing loss and damage.
The Presidency will also undertake consultations on the governance of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts (WIM) and on decision-making in the UNFCCC process.
The Presidency will convene informal consultations with Heads of Delegation on overarching decisions for the COP, CMP, and CMA.
UKRAINE lamented the effects of the war launched by the Russian Federation.
Dates and venues of future sessions: President Shoukry reminded delegates that COP 28 will take place in the United Arab Emirates and invited the Eastern European States and the Latin America and the Caribbean groups to select a host country for COP 29 and COP 30, respectively.
Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP)
Organizational Matters: Adoption of the agenda: The CMP adopted the agenda (FCCC/KP/CMP/2022/1).
Organization of work: The CMP deferred to CMP 18 the consideration of the agenda item on reporting from and review of Annex I parties’ national communications; and annual compilation and accounting report for the second commitment period for Annex B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (for 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022).
On the date of completion of the expert review process under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol for the second commitment period, the CMP will consider, during its closing plenary, a draft decision forwarded to it by SBSTA 56.
Contact groups will convene on: matters relating to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); and the report of the Adaptation Fund Board. Informal consultations will convene on the report of the Compliance Committee. Presidency-led consultations will convene on the report on the High-level Ministerial Roundtable on Increased Ambition of Kyoto Protocol Commitments.
Matters Related to Joint Implementation: The CMP took note of the annual report of the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC) (FCCC/KP/CMP/2022/6). The CMP President will undertake consultations to consider the JISC’s recommendations.
Report of the Adaptation Fund Board: The CMP took note of the reports (FCCC/KP/CMP/2022/4–FCCC/PA/CMA/2022/3). The DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO called for a clear distinction between the Adaptation Fund and a loss and damage fund, noting the latter would be geared towards urgent action, while the former addresses short, medium and long-term needs.
Report of the Compliance Committee: The CMP took note of the report (FCCC/KP/CMP/2022/2).
Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA)
Organizational Matters: Adoption of the agenda: The CMA adopted the agenda (FCCC/PA/CMA/2022/1/Add.4).
Organization of work: In addition to the agenda items already included on the SBs’ agendas, the CMA decided to refer to the SBs:
- Reporting and review pursuant to Article 13 of the Paris Agreement: provision of financial and technical support to developing countries for reporting and capacity-building; and
- Matters relating to adaptation: review of the progress, effectiveness, and performance of the Adaptation Committee.
Contact groups will convene on:
- New collective quantified goal on climate finance;
- Rules, modalities, and procedures for the Article 6.4 mechanism; and
- Report of the Committee to Facilitate Implementation and Promote Compliance referred to in Article 15.2 of the Paris Agreement.
The following items will be taken up as follows:
- Matters relating to the SCF, in a joint contact group with the COP;
- Guidance to the GCF and GEF, in a joint contact group with the COP;
- Matters relating to the Adaptation Fund, in a joint contact group with the CMP; and
- Matters relating to funding arrangements responding to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including a focus on addressing loss and damage, in a joint contact group with the COP.
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
Organizational Matters: Adoption of the agenda: SBSTA Chair Tosi Mpanu Mpanu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) opened the meeting. The SBSTA agreed to defer consideration of the technical review of greenhouse gas inventories of Annex I Parties (FCCC/SBSTA/2020/INF.3, FCCC/SBSTA/2021/INF.4 and FCCC/SBSTA/2022/INF.3) to SBSTA 58. The SBSTA then adopted the agenda (SBSTA/2022/7/Rev.1).
Election of officers other than the Chair: The elections will be addressed in the CMA closing plenary.
Organization of work: Joint SB informal consultations will convene on:
- Report of the Adaptation Committee;
- Review of the progress, effectiveness, and performance of the Adaptation Committee;
- Glasgow–Sharm El-Sheikh work programme on the GGA;
- Report of the WIM Executive Committee (WIM ExCom);
- Matters relating to the Santiago Network under the WIM;
- Koronivia joint work on agriculture;
- Matters relating to the work programme for urgently scaling up mitigation ambition and implementation referred to in paragraph 27 of decision 1/CMA.3 (Glasgow Climate Pact); and
- Development and transfer of technologies: joint annual report of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN).
Joint SBSTA/SBI contact groups will convene on:
- Matters relating to the Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement;
- Matters related to science and review: second periodic review of the long-term global goal under the Convention and of overall progress towards achieving it; and
- Matters relating to the forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures.
- Informal consultations will convene on:
- Matters related to science and review: research and systematic observation;
- Methodological Issues under the Convention and all its five sub-items;
- Matters relating to reporting and review under Article 13 of the Paris Agreement: options for conducting reviews on a voluntary basis of the information reported pursuant to chapter IV of the annex to decision 18/CMA.1, and respective training courses needed to facilitate these voluntary reviews;
- guidance on Article 6.2 cooperative approaches; and
- rules, modalities, and procedures for the Article 6.4 mechanism.
The SBSTA Chair will convene the second meeting of the Glasgow Committee on Non-market Approaches, in a contact group format.
Report of the Adaptation Committee: The Adaptation Committee provided an overview of its work (FCCC/SB/2022/5 and Add.1 and Add.2).
WIM ExCom Report: The WIM ExCom provided an overview of its report (FCCC/SB/2022/2).
Matters Relating to the Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement: the SBSTA Chair noted a technical dialogue will be convened to support the work of the joint SBSTA/SBI contact group.
Development and Transfer of Technologies: Joint annual report of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network: The TEC Chair presented on the work of the TEC and CTCN Advisory Board Chair reported on their work (FCCC/SB/2022/4).
Matters Relating to the Forum on the Impact of the Implementation of Response Measures: The Katowice Committee (KCI) Co-Chair presented on KCI’s work (FCCC/SB/2022/6).
Methodological Issues under the Convention: Emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport: The SBSTA Chair noted that the secretariats of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) had made voluntary submissions on ongoing work to address emissions from fuel use for international aviation and maritime transport, to contribute to the SBSTA in accordance with Decision 4/CP.1, paragraph 2 (FCCC/CP/1995/7/Add.1).
Statements by intergovernmental organizations: The IPCC highlighted that its Sixth Assessment Report package will be finalized by early 2023, in time to provide input to the Global Stocktake and COP 28. The COMMITTEE ON EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES and the COORDINATION GROUP FOR METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES underlined that space agencies support the Paris Agreement’s implementation, including through monitoring carbon dioxide and methane emissions. The GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM stressed the importance of climate observations for policy development and urged addressing data gaps at the regional level. The INTERGOVERNMENTAL OCEANOGRAPHIC COMMISSION OF UNESCO stated that the Ocean is at the heart of the systematic monitoring of the climate system. The WORLD CLIMATE RESEARCH PROGRAMME pointed to an experiment that can predict precipitation. The WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION highlighted that the year 2022 might turn out to be the warmest on record since 1850. The IMO pointed to its newly adopted collective long-term aspirational goal (LTAG) of net-zero carbon emissions from global shipping. ICAO highlighted a similar LTAG for international aviation.
Annual Reports on Technical Reviews: Technical review of information reported under the Convention by Annex I parties in their biennial reports and national communications; Technical review of greenhouse gas inventories and other information reported by Annex I parties, as defined in Article 1, paragraph 7, of the Kyoto Protocol: The SBSTA took note of the reports (FCCC/SBSTA/2022/INF.2 and INF.4).
Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI)
Organizational Matters: Adoption of the agenda: SBI Chair Marianne Karlsen (Norway) noted the COP and CMA referred the consideration of the review of the progress, effectiveness and performance of the Adaptation Committee to the SBs. Parties agreed that this item will be considered alongside the item on the report of the Adaptation Committee (agenda item 11).
Noting the CMA referred to SBI the consideration of agenda item CMA 5(a) on provision of financial and technical support to developing country Parties for reporting and capacity-building under the reporting and review pursuant to Article 13 of the Paris Agreement, Karlsen proposed, and parties agreed, to consider this as a new SBI agenda item, and renumber the succeeding items correspondingly.
The SBI agreed to defer to SBI 58 consideration of: membership of the Adaptation Fund Board; and reporting from and review of Annex I parties.
Parties adopted the agenda (FCCC/SBI/2022/12) as orally amended, holding sub-item 4(a) (information contained in national communications from Annex I parties) in abeyance.
Election of officers other than the Chair: This will be considered in the SBI closing plenary.
Organization of work: Informal consultations will convene on:
- Reporting from non-Annex I parties: Report of the Consultative Group of Experts; Provision of financial and technical support;
- Matters relating to the CDM registry referred to in paragraph 75(b) of the annex to decision 3/CMA.3;
- Matters relating to the LDCs;
- National adaptation plans;
- Linkages between the Technology Mechanism and the Financial Mechanism of the Convention;
- First periodic assessment referred to in paragraph 69 of decision 1/CP.21;
- Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer;
- Fourth review of the Adaptation Fund;
- Matters relating to capacity-building;
- Gender and climate change;
- Matters relating to Action for Climate Empowerment; and
- Provision of financial and technical support to developing country parties for reporting and capacity-building pursuant to Article 13 of the Paris Agreement.
A contact group will convene on administrative, financial, and institutional matters.
Reporting from non-Annex I Parties: Report from the CGE: The Chair of the Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) delivered a report (FCCC/SBI/2022/16).
Provision of financial and technical support: The GEF reported on support provided for Article 13 of the Paris Agreement, noting a “record replenishment” of USD 5.3 billion for July 2022 to June 2026.
Summary reports on the technical analysis of biennial update reports of non-Annex I Parties: The SBI took note of the relevant summary report published on the UNFCCC website.
Report of the administrator of the international transaction log under the Kyoto Protocol: The SBSTA took note of the report (FCCC/KP/CMP/2022/5).
Matters Relating to the Least Developed Countries: The LDC Expert Group (LEG) reported on its work (FCCC/SBI/2022/18).
Matters Relating to Capacity-building: The Paris Committee on Capacity-building (PCCB) reported on their work (FCCC/SBI/2022/14).
Administrative, Financial and Institutional matters: UNFCCC Deputy Executive Secretary Ovais Sarmad presented the relevant reports (FCCC/SBI/2022/INF.10, Add.1, INF.11, and /INF16).
Matters Relating to the Work Programme for Urgently Scaling Up Mitigation Ambition and Implementation: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitator Carlos Fuller (Belize) invited parties to focus efforts on preparing a draft decision for the CMA’s consideration by the end of SB 57 and encouraged inputs in particular on the work programme’s start date and duration. Parties converged on starting the work programme as soon as possible in 2023, but disagreed on its duration. Pointing to the reference in the Glasgow Climate Pact to “this critical decade,” several developing and developed country groups and countries called for continuing the work programme until 2030, while two developing country groups supported concluding in 2023, citing the need to complement, rather than duplicate, the Global Stocktake. The former also supported a mid-term review of the work programme, either in 2024 or 2025.
Guidance on Cooperative Approaches Referred to in Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement and in Decision 2/CMA.3: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitators Kuki Soejachmoen (Indonesia) and Peer Stiansen (Norway) outlined some of the issues the group is expected to consider, including recommendations on reporting tables and guidance, infrastructure, review, special circumstances of Small Island Developing States and LDCs, corresponding adjustments, and whether Internationally Transferred Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs) should include emissions avoidance. They invited general reflections on using the SBSTA Chair’s informal note as the basis of discussions.
Several parties supported using the Chair’s note as a starting point for discussions at this session, while others noted it does not sufficiently deal with some issues such as changes to authorizations of ITMOs and the review process. One party said the note contains elements that are outside the group’s mandate or that had been intentionally rejected at COP 26, and that while it contains some options introduced at the Bonn session, it omits some in a way that prejudices the outcome of discussion at this session.
Some groups of parties suggested focusing on priority issues necessary for operationalizing Article 6.2, identifying infrastructure and reporting, review, the capacity building programme, and changes to authorizations of ITMOs. Some parties urged addressing these priority issues holistically, not individually.
In the Corridors
Taking place at the end of an economically and geopolitically difficult year for countries worldwide, many had predicted COP 27 would not be an easy one. “I only had an hour of sleep last night,” shared an exhausted delegate, “and this is only day one.” She and many others emerged from what the COP 27 President noted were 48 hours of “herculean” consultations over proposals for items to be added to the different bodies’ agendas. At the heart of these were various finance issues—key among them loss and damage finance—but also others, such as limiting global warming to 1.5°C.
With the agendas adopted after a slightly delayed start only, many felt relief. Still, statements and reflections heard from key figures through the day painted a clear picture: outgoing COP 26 President Sharma’s assertion that finance would “make or break the work ahead of us” seemed spot on. And as Executive Secretary Stiell warned, “the real test will be the quality of the discussions that will take place over the next two weeks, and the eventual outcomes.”