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In view of SIDS' dependency on energy imports, energy conservation and the development of renewable sources of energy need to be encouraged. Recommendations for national action include: implement appropriate public education and awareness programmes to promote energy conservation; promote the efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound sources of energy and energy efficient technologies; and establish and/or strengthen research and development of new and renewable sources of energy. Recommendations for regional and international action include: establish or strengthen research and policy capabilities in the development of new and renewable sources of energy; promote regional cooperation between SIDS on energy sector issues; develop effective mechanisms for the transfer of energy technology; and encourage international institutions and agencies to incorporate environmental efficiency and conservation principles into energy-sector-related projects, training and technical assistance.