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The focus of this chapter is the lifeline provided to SIDS by transport and communication. The most difficult paragraph in this chapter addressed international telecommunications costs to SIDS. AOSIS advocated lowering international telecommunications costs to SIDS while some of the developed countries argued that this was not within their mandate. It was only on the final day of negotiations that text was agreed to. It reads: "Promote improved international telecommunications at the lowest possible cost for small island developing States, while recognizing the need to create an environment conducive to the investment in telecommunications infrastructure and service to benefit local business and people." Other recommended international actions include: develop innovative energy-efficient transport solutions; cooperate with national and regional bodies in designing and enforcing effective quarantine systems; and promote research and development in telecommunications and transportation relevant to the sustainable development of SIDS. Recommended national and regional action includes: strengthening transport services; upgrading domestic communication facilities; addressing quarantine problems; and increasing cooperation in civil aviation, shipping and telecommunications.