Earth Negotiations Bulletin

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 A Reporting Service for Environment and Development Negotiations

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Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

Vol. 22 No. 03
Friday, 4 May 2001

SUMMARY OF THE FIRST PREPARATORY SESSION OF THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
30 APRIL – 2 MAY 2001

The tenth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-10), acting as the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, took place at UN Headquarters in New York from 30 April to 2 May 2001. Over 600 participants attended the session, including representatives of governments, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs and other major groups and stakeholders. The preparatory session was held in accordance with UN General Assembly resolution 55/199.

The session elected the Bureau members, considered organizational matters and deliberated on five agenda items: progress in the preparatory activities at the local, national, regional and international levels, as well as by major groups; the process for setting the agenda and determining possible main themes for the Summit; specific modalities for future preparatory meetings, including matters of accreditation for NGOs; and the rules of procedure for the Summit. The session prepared and adopted five draft decisions. Although there was little contention over most issues, there was some debate regarding the number of Vice-Presidents at the Summit, the timing for reporting back to the Preparatory Committee during their second and third sessions by UNEP’s task force on International Environmental Governance (IEG), input to the review by major groups and other international organizations and the need for transparent open-ended consultations in the Bureau.

In marked contrast to the visible divisions that characterized the ninth session of the CSD, which concluded late on Saturday, 28 April, the first preparatory session for the World Summit on Sustainable Development ended early on a remarkably upbeat note. Closing the session on Wednesday afternoon, Chair Emil Salim (Indonesia) highlighted the "constructive and positive atmosphere" and "the smiles and good spirit" that prevailed throughout the session. This mood was evident not only within the plenary sessions, but also, and perhaps more significantly, during the informal negotiations. Following the three-day preparatory session, there is clear agreement on the organizational aspects leading up to the Summit, including agreement on the specific modalities of future preparatory meetings, a tentative organization of work for the Summit (with the dates for the meeting finally confirmed), and arrangements for the accreditation and participation of NGOs and other major groups throughout the preparatory process and at the Summit. While this meeting has laid a positive foundation for the Summit, which will take place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2-11 September 2002, there are still significant potential obstacles on the road ahead, any of which can undermine the likelihood of reaching agreement on concrete measures to operationalize sustainable development.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The World Summit on Sustainable Development will be held 10 years after the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). UNCED, also known as the Earth Summit, took place from 3-14 June 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Over 100 Heads of State and Governments, representatives from 178 countries, and over 17,000 participants attended the Conference. The principal outputs of the Rio Summit were the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Statement of Forest Principles, and Agenda 21, the 40-chapter programme of action for sustainable development.

Among other things, Agenda 21 called for the creation of a Commission on Sustainable Development to: ensure effective follow-up of UNCED; enhance international cooperation and rationalize the intergovernmental decision-making capacity; and examine progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 at the local, national, regional and international levels. In 1992, the 47th session of the UN General Assembly set out, in resolution 47/191, the terms of reference for the Commission, its composition, guidelines for the participation of NGOs, the organization of work, its relationship with other UN bodies and Secretariat arrangements. The CSD held its first meeting in June 1993 and has since met annually.

UNGASS-19: Also at its 47th session in 1992, the General Assembly adopted resolution 47/190, which called for a special session of the General Assembly to review and appraise Agenda 21 implementation five years after UNCED. The 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly for the Overall Review and Appraisal of Agenda 21, which was held at UN headquarters in New York from 23-27 June 1997, adopted a "Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21." The document assessed progress made since UNCED, examined implementation in areas requiring urgent action and means of implementation, and established the CSD’s work programme for the period 1998-2002.

RESOLUTION 55/199: In December 2000, the General Assembly adopted resolution 55/199, in which it decided to organize the ten-year review of UNCED in 2002 at the summit level to reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable development. The General Assembly accepted South Africa’s offer to host the event, which will be called the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The resolution decided that the review should focus on the identification of accomplishments and areas where further efforts are needed to implement Agenda 21 and other UNCED outcomes, action-oriented decisions in areas where further efforts are needed, and new challenges and opportunities within the framework of Agenda 21, and result in renewed political commitment and support for sustainable development.

REPORT OF THE SESSION

CSD-9 Chair Beldrich Moldan (Czech Republic) opened CSD-10 acting as the first session of the Preparatory Committee on Monday, 30 April. Delegates elected by acclamation Emil Salim (Indonesia) as Chair. In his opening statement, Salim outlined main concerns regarding sustainable development, specifically that environmental issues are not yet mainstreamed within development and called for the charting of a collaborative course for sustainable development to avoid "crashing Spaceship Earth into an environmental disaster." Salim then introduced, and delegates adopted, the agenda and organization of work (E/CN.17/2001/PC/1).

Most Bureau members were elected by acclamation: Ahmed Ihab Gamaleldin (Egypt) and Ositadinma Anaedu (Nigeria) for Africa; Kiyo Akasaka (Japan) for Asia; Jan Kara (Czech Republic) and Alexandru Niculescu (Romania) for Eastern Europe; and Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti (Brazil) and Diane Marie Quarless (Jamaica) for Latin America and the Caribbean. Since the Western Europe and Others Group had presented four candidates for two positions, Plenary elected by secret ballot Richard Ballhorn (Canada) and Lars-Göran Engfeldt (Sweden) as the representatives. On Wednesday, 2 May, Diane Marie Quarless was elected by acclamation as Rapporteur.

Delegates then met in Plenary the rest of the day on Monday, 30 April, and considered reports on the process for setting the agenda and determining possible main themes for the Summit in a timely manner. They heard reports from major groups on progress in preparatory activities at the local, national, regional and international levels. On Tuesday, 1 May, delegates considered the draft rules of procedure for the Summit, stakeholder participation and continued deliberations on the progress of preparatory activities and on the process for setting the agenda for the Summit. Based on these discussions, five draft decisions were prepared and circulated Tuesday afternoon. The draft decisions were considered in informal consultations on Tuesday evening and outstanding issues were resolved through informal-informal consultations held Wednesday morning and early afternoon. The decisions were adopted after brief discussions during the Closing Plenary on Wednesday afternoon, 2 May.

PROGRESS IN THE PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES AT THE LOCAL, NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVELS, AS WELL AS BY MAJOR GROUPS

On Monday and Tuesday, delegates and major group representatives discussed progress in Agenda 21 implementation, preparations underway and suggestions for the Summit.

The Women’s Caucus urged that Summit meeting locations be determined on a thematic, not stakeholder, basis. The Indigenous Peoples’ Caucus highlighted the link between cultural and biological diversity. The Youth Caucus urged consideration of unsustainable Western lifestyles. The Education Caucus called for recognition and reaffirmation of the vital role of education in sustainable development. Trade Unions urged governments to ensure a mix of major group representatives on their delegations. NGOs highlighted the link between disempowerment and environmental degradation. Local Authorities called for articulation and endorsement at the Summit of local strategies for sustainable development. Business and Industry emphasized innovation, investment, integration and implementation of policies. The Scientific and Technological Community called for strengthened scientific and technological capacity in developing countries. Farmers urged that the Summit agenda include issues of food security, rural development and sustainable livelihoods.

Several delegates, including, inter alia, Chile, China, Japan, the Russian Federation and the US, outlined efforts at the national level, such as assessment of sustainable development and implementation of Agenda 21. Brazil said it had initiated over 100,000 consultations with stakeholders to review Agenda 21. Bolivia said the Latin America and Caribbean region would be conducting a review of its regional Agenda 21 programme. Regarding progress in preparatory activities, Iran, on behalf of the G-77/China, proposed that GA resolution 55/199 provide the "terms of reference" for the preparatory process. Regarding mobilizing high-level political leadership for effective Summit preparations, the G-77/China, the US and Sweden, on behalf of the EU, offered suggestions stating that these preparations result in a strengthened global partnership and further implementation of Agenda 21. On the enrichment of the UN system’s contribution to the Summit preparatory process, Croatia, with Egypt, Nigeria and Turkey, noted in particular the initiative of the International Fund for Agricultural Development’s Rural Poverty Report 2000. Switzerland suggested that each region provide an assessment of Agenda 21 implementation. Regarding the Secretary-General’s report for the first substantive session of the Preparatory Committee, the G-77/China urged consideration of inter-regional preparations and underlined the need to address cross-sectoral issues. The EU called for consideration of preparatory activities of major groups.

Proposals regarding documentation for submission to the next session of the Preparatory Committee included: submissions by the UN system and Bretton Woods institutions on Agenda 21 implementation; adding reviews of domestic and international obstacles to implementation; information on options to improve the CSD’s effectiveness and input into the evaluation and definition of its role and programme of work; an integrated assessment of recent social, economic and environmental trends and their scenarios for the next decade; and input from major groups.

The G-77/China opposed domestic reviews of obstacles to implementation and language suggesting the Secretariat was ineffective. Brazil noted that while the Secretariat should summarize trends, it is the Commission’s responsibility to evaluate progress. Egypt emphasized that the purpose was to identify salient trends.

In addition to mobilizing political support, the EU, with the G-77/ China, proposed that the role of the Bureau include pursuing the support of international financial institutions. Regarding initial text stating the role of the Bureau to support the Preparatory Committee in providing a general oversight of various intergovernmental preparatory activities, particularly at the regional level, on Tuesday, several delegates, including Switzerland, Indonesia, the G-77/China, and the EU, discussed what was the intended meaning of "oversight."

On inputs from other processes, the G-77/China suggested that the IEG process seek to capture the environmental agenda, and, due to the need to balance the three pillars of sustainable development, emphasized that IEG outputs be submitted to the first substantive session of the Preparatory Committee. The EU preferred that it be done "as soon as possible." Canada noted that the IEG results should be submitted to UNEP’s Governing Council before submission to the Preparatory Committee. This issue generated debate, including on a US proposal that the results of preparatory processes be "taken into account," instead of the original text to "integrate" results, which the G-77/China and the Russian Federation opposed. After informal-informal talks, the original text was retained. However, during the Closing Plenary, Egypt, supported by Libya, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, re-opened discussion and proposed that the intergovernmental process results be "considered," which was accepted after prolonged discussion.

Final Decision: The decision (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2) highlights, inter alia: use of GA resolution 55/199 to lay the terms of reference for the preparatory process; the importance of mobilizing high-level political leadership to ensure effective Summit preparations and of further implementation of Agenda 21 and strengthening global partnership for sustainable development; and regional Summit preparations, including a regional assessment of the implementation of Agenda 21. The decision invites the Secretary-General’s report for the first substantive session of the Preparatory Committee to take into account, inter alia, the results of inter-regional and major groups’ preparatory activities upon which possible main themes will be based, and notes the need to address cross-sectoral issues and means of implementation in an integrated and comprehensive manner. The decision specifies that the Secretariat should provide documentation to the next session of the Preparatory Committee on action undertaken by the UN system, other international organizations, international financial institutions and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in assisting developing countries to implement Agenda 21, as well as trends in and constraints to the implementation of Agenda 21 based on, inter alia, national reports submitted to the CSD. It invites all inter-governmental processes relevant to the Summit, including the IEG process, to submit progress reports/results to the second and third substantive sessions of the Preparatory Committee at its second session and the final results to the third session, to be considered in the preparatory process, and states that the Bureau of the Preparatory Committee support the role of the Committee in monitoring, with a view to considering the reports of all relevant intergovernmental processes.

PROCESS FOR SETTING THE AGENDA AND DETERMINING POSSIBLE ELEMENTS FOR THE SUMMIT IN A TIMELY MANNER

Deliberation of this issue was held in conjunction with the agenda item on progress in the preparatory activities. Discussions were held on Monday, 30 April, and Tuesday, 1 May. Subsequently, a draft decision was prepared on the tentative organization of work during the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

There was no documentation from the Secretariat on this subject and therefore discussion was based on paragraph 16(d) of GA resolution 55/199. Delegates’ presentations covered three areas: suggestions of Summit themes; approaches leading to the definition of the themes; and stakeholders to be involved in theme definition. Thematic suggestions included: poverty-related concerns, employment, food security, public health, rural development, sustainable livelihoods, decoupling economic growth and environmental damage through resource efficiency, globalization, financial resources, instruments of Agenda 21 implementation, conservation and stewardship, spirituality, IEG and innovation and partnership.

Regarding the theme identification process, several delegates, including the G-77/China, Bolivia and Saudi Arabia, called for a bottom-up process, with Saudi Arabia emphasizing that it be open to full developing country participation, and based on UN principles. Regarding stakeholder input, there were calls for: broad input from Indigenous Peoples during the preparatory sessions; undertaking regional preparatory meetings before setting Summit themes and priorities; and the need to support regional intergovernmental preparatory meetings.

The draft decision addressed the Plenary and main committees of the Summit, as well as roundtables. During informal consultations on the draft decision, South Africa said it had two proposals, but preferred to have the proposals considered informally by governments before presentation during the informal consultations. The two proposals related to the ceremonies preceding the official opening and following the official closing of the Summit, and an exhibition of sustainable development best practices. During the Closing Plenary, China proposed amending all references in the text from "stakeholders" to "NGOs and other major groups." The EU preferred retaining "stakeholder" in reference to participation in the business and industry exhibition. South Africa, as host of this event and proponent of the text, was asked to respond to China’s amendments. South Africa accepted China’s amendments and the decision was adopted.

Final Decision: The decision (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2) proposes that the Summit take place from 2-11 September 2002, with 9-11 September planned for Heads of State and Government participation. On 2-6 September 2002, the Summit will address organizational matters in Plenary, followed by a series of partnership events involving NGOs and other major groups accredited to the Summit, while the main committee will meet in parallel to the Plenary to consider all outstanding matters related to the Summit documents.

From 9-11 September 2002, Plenary will host general debate among Heads of State and Government and a short multi-stakeholder event involving the highest level of representation from major groups and governments, and will adopt final documents. Details regarding the topics of the multi-stakeholder event will be recommended by the Preparatory Committee Bureau.

According to the decision, roundtables will be held involving Heads of States and Government, and will build on the positive experience gained during the Millennium General Assembly, with topics recommended by the Bureau.

The decision invites the Bureau to conduct transparent open-ended consultations in a timely manner, and notes with interest that additional events, in the form of ceremonies that will precede the official opening and follow the official closing of the Summit, and an exhibition of sustainable development best practices and technologies, will be arranged by the host government.

SPECIFIC MODALITIES FOR FUTURE PREPARATORY MEETINGS, INCLUDING THE ACCREDITATION FOR NGO AND MAJOR GROUPS PARTICIPATION IN THE PREPARATORY PROCESS AND SUMMIT

This agenda item was discussed formally on Tuesday morning, 1 May, and in informal discussions on Wednesday. On Tuesday, South Africa presented an update of preparations for the Summit, noting that, inter alia:

  • the conference venues have been secured;

  • provision has been made for accommodation at appropriate rates;

  • a national preparatory committee has been established with participation of major stakeholders;

  • an environmental management plan and standards will be implemented;

  • a major exhibition on leading industrial and environmental technologies will be held; and

  • the Summit website will be launched in July 2001.

An initial conference logo design was presented. Indonesia outlined logistical details for the preparatory session to be held in Bali from 27 May to 7 June 2002. From this agenda item, two decisions were prepared on modalities for future sessions and on accreditation of NGOs and other major groups.

Modalities for Future Sessions: This draft decision sets out specific modalities for the three substantive preparatory sessions. During the Closing Plenary, the G-77/China expressed concern about the overlap between the timing of the second substantive session and other environmental or sustainable development meetings, while the EU, with Brazil, inquired about the possibility of overlapping dates for the second preparatory session and the UNEP Global Ministerial Environment Forum meeting. UNEP advised that the Governing Council would have to discuss the issue. Under-Secretary-General of Economic and Social Affairs Nitin Desai said that venue availability at UN headquarters is limited to the dates indicated. The Chair of the Bureau undertook to write to the President of the UNEP Governing Council, explaining the situation and requesting him to show flexibility regarding the timing of its February session.

Final decision: The final decision (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2) states that the second preparatory session will consider:

  • results of national assessments;

  • results of subregional, regional and inter-regional preparatory meetings;

  • progress reports/results of all intergovernmental processes relevant to the Summit, including a progress report on the IEG process;

  • the Report of the Secretary-General and other inputs from the Secretariat;

  • inputs from relevant international organizations, international financial institutions and the GEF; and

  • contributions from major groups.

The decision states that at the third preparatory session, the Preparatory Committee will continue consideration of the Chair’s paper transmitted from the second session, and shall agree on the text of a document containing the results of the review and assessment, as well as conclusions and recommendations for further action. This document will be transmitted to the final preparatory session for information and to the Summit for information and formal adoption. In addition, a proposal will be prepared regarding the provisional agenda and the possible main themes for the Summit based on the results of the preparatory activities.

The decision specifies that the fourth and final preparatory session shall prepare a concise and focused document that should emphasize the need for a global partnership to achieve the objectives of sustainable development, reconfirm the need for an integrated and strategically-focused approach to Agenda 21 implementation, and address the new challenges and opportunities that have emerged since UNCED, within the framework of Agenda 21. This session will include a Multi-stakeholder Dialogue and a High-level Segment at the ministerial level.

The Commission invites the Bureau to conduct transparent open-ended consultations in a timely manner on matters related to preparations for each of the forthcoming sessions of the Preparatory Committee.

Accreditation of NGOs and other Major Groups: The draft decision described: the registration, accreditation, and participation modalities during the sessions of the Preparatory Committee; preliminary modalities for participation in the Summit; and funding for NGOs and other major groups. During the informal consultations on this decision, China questioned a provision for NGOs that are on the CSD roster, but that lack ECOSOC consultative status, while Canada expressed concern about text intimating that stakeholders be denied opportunity to make submissions due to limited time. During the Closing Plenary, the EU expressed concern with text regarding the "limited" time available. The G-77/China, with the Secretariat, reminded delegates that removal of this language was discussed and agreed informally. The EU accepted this amendment, and the decision was adopted. China’s proposal to replace reference to "stakeholders" with "accredited NGOs and other major groups" was also approved.

Final Decision: The final decision (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2) states that, pursuant to GA resolution 55/199: major groups that are currently in consultative status with ECOSOC (including those on the roster through the CSD list) as NGOs, and that wish to attend and contribute to the 2002 Summit and its preparatory meetings, must inform the Secretariat and register to participate; and those NGOs and other major groups currently not in consultative status but wishing to attend and contribute to the Summit and its preparatory process may apply to the Secretariat for that purpose, with the deadline being four weeks before the start of each preparatory session.

On participation modalities during the sessions of the Preparatory Committee, the decision notes that:

  • representatives of accredited NGOs and other major groups will participate in the process in the same way they have participated in the meetings of the CSD;

  • major groups that have obtained accreditation may be given an opportunity to address the Preparatory Committee and its subsidiary bodies;

  • Multi-stakeholder Dialogues will be organized as part of the second and fourth preparatory sessions, the focus of which will be aligned with issues that are on the agenda of each preparatory session; and

  • major groups will have an opportunity to organize various informal side events and briefings to exchange views with governments.

Regarding preliminary modalities for participation at the Summit, the decision states that:

  • accredited NGOs and other major groups will have direct access to the official Summit venue;

  • recognizing the limited time available, a small, but representative number of representatives of accredited NGOs and other major groups will be invited to address the Plenary after statements made by governmental representatives;

  • a short multi-stakeholder event is planned for the Summit;

  • Plenary sessions during the first week of the Summit will be organized as a series of partnership events with stakeholders; and

  • other stakeholder events and activities are also expected to take place, such as informal roundtables with major groups and governments on specific issues, parallel events and side events.

On funding, the decision specifies that the Summit Secretariat will facilitate the funding of participants from major groups from developing countries and countries with economies in transition in the Multi-stakeholder Dialogues during the preparatory sessions and the Summit, and interested donor governments and other donors are encouraged to provide voluntary contributions to the Trust Fund in support of this process.

DRAFT RULES OF PROCEDURE

The Director of the Division for Sustainable Development, JoAnne DiSano, presented the draft provisional rules of procedure for the Summit (E/CN.17/2001/PC/24) in the Plenary on Monday afternoon, 30 April. Noting that the provisional rules need approval by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Commission acting as the Preparatory Committee, DiSano recommended that the draft rules be considered by the Committee with a view to submitting them to the 56th session of the General Assembly.

Delegates considered the proposed rules in Plenary on Tuesday morning. During these discussions, the G-77/China proposed textual amendments regarding simultaneous interpretation at the meetings, and proposed adding a footnote listing the associate members of regional commissions who may participate as observers. The US called on the Secretariat to ensure that this is an exhaustive list.

Differing opinions on the size of the Bureau for the Summit were incorporated into a draft decision that was discussed by delegates on Tuesday evening. During these discussions the EU called for a small managerial Bureau, while the Russian Federation said nine is the optimum number, and the G-77/China, supported by Mexico, expressed preference for 39, but indicated willingness to find a middle ground. Delegates failed to agree on this issue, which was deferred for consideration in informal-informal consultations. Delegates approved the informally negotiated decision as presented to Plenary Wednesday afternoon, with no further comments.

Final Decision: The decision (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2) recommends that the General Assembly, at its 56th session, adopt the provisional rules of procedure, as contained in the annex to document E/ CN.17/2001/PC/24, with two modifications: the inclusion of reference to the provision of simultaneous interpretation at the meetings, and a footnote listing the associate members of regional commissions who may participate as observers. The decision also recommends that there should be 25 Vice-Presidents of the Summit, with a footnote added to the annex text stating that the Bureau should include five representatives from each of the five UN regional groups.

CLOSING PLENARY

Chair Salim drew delegates’ attention to the draft report of the Commission acting as the Preparatory Committee for the Summit on its organizational session (E/CN.17/2001/PC/L.2), as well as the five decisions. Delegates adopted the report.

Under-Secretary-General Desai said the decisions provide a valuable roadmap to the 2002 Summit, and urged delegates to stay engaged in the sustainable development process until the next preparatory session in January 2002. Bolivia recommended that delegates encourage support from governments at national and regional levels in order to maintain political momentum. The G-77/China and the EU thanked the Chair, the Bureau, the Secretariat and their negotiating partners. Salim expressed hope that the cooperative spirit of this first session would prevail throughout the preparatory process, and said success in Johannesburg depends on: the spirit of the meeting; the participation of Heads of State and Government; and the content of deliberations. He gaveled the session to a close at 5:15 pm.

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE SESSION

BRINGING THE 2002 SUMMIT "DOWN TO EARTH"

In marked contrast to the visible divisions that characterized the CSD-9 negotiations in April, the first preparatory session for the World Summit on Sustainable Development ended on a remarkably upbeat note. Closing the meeting ahead of schedule on Wednesday afternoon, Chair Emil Salim highlighted the "constructive and positive atmosphere" and "the smiles and good spirit" that prevailed throughout the meeting. This mood was evident not only within the plenary sessions, but also, and perhaps more significantly, during the informal negotiations. The spirit of goodwill – characterized for example by the closing good-humored exchange of jokes between the G-77/China and the EU over potential disagreement on text – has laid a positive foundation for the significant challenges that remain to be addressed on the road to the Johannesburg Summit.

Following the three-day preparatory meeting, there is clear agreement on the organizational aspects leading up to the Summit, including the specific modalities of future preparatory meetings, a tentative organization of work for the Summit (with the dates for the meeting finally confirmed), and arrangements for the accreditation and participation of NGOs and other major groups throughout the preparatory process and at the Summit. Significantly, the input of civil society has been fully integrated into the process, building on best practices for stakeholder participation based on previous UN meetings, although, following interventions by China, the range of stakeholder input has been limited to accredited NGOs and other major groups. The meeting also gave delegates the opportunity to consider the logistical arrangements that South Africa has undertaken for the conference, with most delegates expressing genuine confidence in South Africa’s state of readiness for this ambitious event.

A LONG WALK TO JOHANNESBURG

While the first preparatory session has laid a positive foundation for the Johannesburg Summit, there are significant potential obstacles on the road ahead, any of which can undermine the likelihood of reaching agreement on concrete measures to operationalize sustainable development. A formidable task is for the Bureau and the host governments (Indonesia and South Africa) to maintain the positive momentum generated by this meeting, especially considering the nine-month hiatus before the next session of the Preparatory Committee. Since this first preparatory session was not formally guided by the new Bureau, it remains to be seen how the different Bureau members will interact, and what their skill levels are, not only in maintaining momentum in the coming months, but also in ensuring productive outcomes from the potentially fractious discussions.

There are a number of other more specific challenges that the CSD Secretariat, the Bureau, the host governments and the various delegations will need to address in the coming months to ensure that the Summit will have a meaningful outcome. These specifically include:

  • raising and maintaining the level of engagement within governments and their foreign ministries;

  • finding an effective balance between reviewing implementation of the Rio commitments and identifying concerns reflecting changes since Rio;

  • agreeing upon methods for the effective integration of the international environmental governance process, and the overlap between UNEP meetings and the preparatory sessions;

  • identifying a forward-looking agenda that is sufficiently attractive to ensure the positive and proactive engagement of all key stakeholders, including the business community; and

  • addressing the concerns of NGOs and other major groups so that they are able to participate effectively in the negotiating process, without being isolated in a remote satellite location.

Underlying all of these challenges is the need to reach agreement on the key themes to be addressed at the Summit. Without identifying these specific challenges, and proposing a high-profile package of deals, it will be difficult to engage political support at the highest level and to ensure the meaningful participation of Heads of State and Government, as well as, ideally, the commitment of ministers of finance and of trade and industry. Without their participation, it is questionable whether the Summit will engender the media attention that is essential to spread the message of sustainable development.

This need to ensure the participation of Heads of State and Government addresses the trade-off that is required between adopting a "bottom-up" approach – by identifying the themes throughout the different regional meetings, as advocated, for example, by the G-77/ China – or by defining a set of themes within a sufficient time period to elicit constructive input and substantive commitment from the Heads of State and Government.

BREAKING NEW GROUND, OR FERTILIZING EXISTING SEEDS?

Of the many challenges that lie ahead, reaching agreement on the themes for discussion is likely to prove the most difficult. While one of the emerging common themes is that of globalization, this is hardly helpful in refining the debate, with the concept being as nebulous and all-encompassing as sustainable development. While there is certainly no shortage of recommendations for themes, the difficulty will be in finding a means to combine the multitude of concerns in such a way that they can result in meaningful commitments to operationalize sustainability.

The divisions that will need to be overcome in agreeing to commitments were characterized during the CSD-9 discussions, and are typified by the emphasis within the EU on defining requirements for improved environmental performance, while the G-77/China understandably place far greater weight on the social and economic legs of sustainable development. As one developing country representative put it, the Summit needs to demonstrate that sustainable development "can in fact be an effective tool for achieving development in developing countries," instead of being a source of environmental conditionalities that constrain economic growth. Failing this, the Summit "will be a waste of time." On this basis, addressing the concerns of globalization will require significant commitments on such issues as debt relief and poverty eradication, with developed countries being expected, for example, to make sincere commitments to easing agricultural protectionism – no easy task!

Other negotiating blocs and stakeholder groups place greater emphasis on the environmental pillar of sustainability. While recognizing the need for poverty eradication, they call also for increased focus on the impacts of wealth, and prioritize the need to change unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, an issue where little has been achieved since Rio. Another key concern of these participants is the "crisis of implementation," the criticism being that too many multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are nothing more than paper tigers. These concerns regarding the implementation, coordination and enforcement of MEAs, and the need to review and strengthen existing UN environmental agencies, underlie the work of UNEP’s Open-Ended Intergovernmental Group of Ministers on International Environmental Governance. This Group, which held its first meeting during CSD-9, has been tasked with reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of existing arrangements of international environmental governance. As discussions during the last three days revealed, there remain simmering tensions on the manner and extent to which this work should be suitably incorporated within the Summit process. A number of countries expressed concern that it fails to reflect a suitable balance between the environmental, economic and social pillars of sustainability, since the international environmental governance process may overemphasize the environmental aspect.

Compounding this traditional North-South conflict on the differing priorities of sustainable development is the ongoing impasse regarding the US position on the Kyoto Protocol, the ratification of which has long been anticipated as an important outcome of the Summit. The increasing international isolation of the US on this issue has caused speculation on the possible role of the US in Johannesburg. Noting the irony, a number of observers recall the Rio Summit when President George Bush, reversing initial indications, came to Rio and signed the climate convention. Some are wondering what impact similar pressures will have on his son, and what work is being done to conjure up a complex package of deals relating to the Kyoto Protocol.

PROVIDING INSPIRATION: LEADING BY EXAMPLE

In his address to the World Summit on Social Development in 1995, Nelson Mandela raised the question: "How do we emerge from here inspired not merely to attend future summits but, under the aegis of the UN, to implement programmes that the world and its inhabitants demand and deserve?" With delegates openly acknowledging that implementation of the Rio commitments has not been hugely successful, it is questioned why Johannesburg should be any different. In the words of one observer "will the Summit simply be a glorified CSD, or will it actually result in concrete change?"

Ensconced in the sanctum of the UN basement, engaging in the sometimes surreal "tit for tat" of international negotiations, delegates often seem immune to the reality of the outside world, spending more time on obtuse discussions on procedural arrangements than on agreeing to meaningful action. While delegates and NGOs spent Tuesday (May Day / Labor Day) deliberating the procedures and rules for the Johannesburg Summit, activists around the world, from Australia to Zimbabwe, took to the streets to express their frustrations with globalization, echoing the protests that occurred in Quebec one week earlier. Although the CSD had escaped such demonstrations – due largely to its ground-breaking provision for stakeholder participation (some cynics might point instead to the comparative obscurity of the CSD process) – a number of observers have been speculating on the extent to which the Johannesburg Summit will serve as a platform for these globalization protestors. More importantly, however, is the question as to how – if at all – Johannesburg can address the legitimate concerns both of these demonstrators, as well of the silent majorities in the developing world.

At a simple level, and to enhance the credibility of the UN process, it would behoove negotiators to lead by example. In this regard it is perhaps ironic that the two weeks of discussions on energy that preceded the preparatory session took place in a building that is a monument to bad design in terms of energy efficiency. Ironic, too, is the fact that in agreeing upon the procedural arrangements for the Summit, no commitment was ever proposed on promoting the environmental and social sustainability of the Summit process.

FROM THE SAMBA TO THE CHIMURENGA: DANCING TO THE SAME TUNE

With its history of reaching negotiated settlements on complex issues, South Africa provides an auspicious venue for providing innovative solutions to the challenges of sustainable development, and for stimulating the "African renaissance" that its leaders so frequently espouse.

However, final responsibility for ensuring meaningful Summit agreements rests with all the participating governments, their negotiators and the accompanying stakeholders. In packing their bags for New York, Bali and Johannesburg, it is to be hoped that they not only leave behind the personal baggage of conventional negotiating positions, but that they bring with them a genuine commitment to lead by example, and to demonstrate the change in behavior that is required to achieve sustainable development. It is only by so doing, that, in the words of Chair Salim, the Johannesburg Summit will be remembered as the "Down to Earth" Summit, the Summit in which governments avoided lofty proclamations on the need for change, and instead defined concrete operational programmes and commitments to action for sustainable development.

THINGS TO LOOK FOR BEFORE THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMINENT PERSONS’ ROUNDTABLE – EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGION: This roundtable will take place at a location and time (in 2001) to be confirmed. For more information, contact: Rod Holesgrove, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5104; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: holesgrove@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – ANDEAN REGION: This meeting will take place in Caracas, Venezuela. The dates are to be confirmed. For more information, contact: Ricardo Sanchez Sosa, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico; tel: +525-202-7529/7493; fax: +525-202-0950; e-mail: rsanchez@rolac.unep.mx; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

YOUTH CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will be held in Borgholm, Sweden, from 23-27 May 2001. An official part of the Swedish EU Presidency, the conference will contribute to youth preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development. For more information, contact: Secretariat, Swedish Environment Ministry; tel: +46-8-440-8670; e-mail: camilla.funke@lsu.se; Internet: http://www.youth.se/

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – SOUTH AFRICA REGION: This meeting will take place from 28-31 May 2001, in Botswana. For more information, contact: Sekou Toure, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Africa; tel: +254-2-624-285; fax: +254-2-624-324; e-mail: sekou.toure@unep.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMINENT PERSONS’ ROUNDTABLE – EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA REGION: This roundtable will take place from 6-8 June 2001, in Vail, Colorado, USA. For more information, contact: Rod Holesgrove, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5104; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: holesgrove@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – NORTHERN AFRICA REGION: This meeting will take place from 11-14 June 2001, in Tunis, Tunisia. For more information, contact: Sekou Toure, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Africa; tel: +254-2-624-285; fax: +254-2-624-324; e-mail: sekou.toure@unep.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – SOUTHEAST ASIA REGION: This meeting will take place from 13-15 June 2001, in Manila, Philippines. For more information, contact: Nirmal Andrews, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok; tel: +66-2-288-1870; fax: +66-2-280-3829; e-mail: andrewsni@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – SOUTHERN CONE REGION: This meeting will take place on 14-15 June 2001, in Santiago, Chile. For more information, contact: Ricardo Sanchez Sosa, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico; tel: +525-202-7529/7493; fax: +525-202-0950; e-mail: rsanchez@rolac.unep.mx; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMINENT PERSONS’ ROUNDTABLE – LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION: This roundtable will take place from 18-20 June 2001, in Bridgeport, Barbados. For more information, contact: Rod Holesgrove, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5104; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: holesgrove@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – MESO-AMERICA REGION: This meeting will take place on 21-22 June 2001, in San Salvador, El Salvador. For more information, contact: Ricardo Sanchez Sosa, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico; tel: +525-202-7529/7493; fax: +525-202-0950; e-mail: rsanchez@rolac.unep.mx; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMINENT PERSONS’ ROUNDTABLE – AFRICA REGION: This roundtable will take place from 25-27 June 2001, in Cairo, Egypt. For more information, contact: Rod Holesgrove, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5104; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: holesgrove@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – WEST AFRICA REGION: This meeting will take place from 25-28 June 2001, in Abuja, Nigeria. For more information, contact: Sekou Toure, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Africa; tel: +254-2-624-285; fax: +254-2-624-324; e-mail: sekou.toure@unep.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – CENTRAL ASIA REGION: This meeting will take place from 27-29 June 2001, in Almaty, Kazakhstan. For more information, contact: Nirmal Andrews, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok; tel: +66-2-288-1870; fax: +66-2-280-3829; e-mail: andrewsni@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – CARIBBEAN REGION: This meeting will take place from 28-30 June 2001, in Havana, Cuba. For more information, contact: Ricardo Sanchez Sosa, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico; tel: +525-202-7529/7493; fax: +525-202-0950; e-mail: rsanchez@rolac.unep.mx; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – CENTRAL AFRICA REGION: This meeting will take place from 9-13 July 2001, in Libreville, Gabon. For more information, contact: Sekou Toure, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Africa; tel: +254-2-624-285; fax: +254-2-624-324; e-mail: sekou.toure@unep.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – EAST AFRICA REGION: This meeting will take place from 16-19 July 2001, in Djibouti. For more information, contact: Sekou Toure, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Africa; tel: +254-2-624-285; fax: +254-2-624-324; e-mail: sekou.toure@unep.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMINENT PERSONS’ ROUNDTABLE – CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA REGION: This roundtable will take place from 30 July to 1 August 2001, in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. For more information, contact: Rod Holesgrove, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5104; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: holesgrove@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – NORTHEAST ASIA REGION: This meeting will take place at the end of July, in Beijing, China. For more information, contact: Nirmal Andrews, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok; tel: +66-2-288-1870; fax: +66-2-280-3829; e-mail: andrewsni@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � SOUTH ASIA REGION: This meeting will take place in early August, in either Bhutan or Nepal. For more information, contact: Nirmal Andrews, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok; tel: +66-2-288-1870; fax: +66-2-280-3829; e-mail: andrewsni@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUBREGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � PACIFIC REGION: This meeting will take place in mid to late August, in Samoa. For more information, contact: Nirmal Andrews, Director, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok; tel: +66-2-288-1870; fax: +66-2-280-3829; e-mail: andrewsni@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � AFRICA REGION: This meeting will be held from 28-31 August 2001, in Nairobi, Kenya. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � EUROPEAN REGION: This meeting will be held on 24-25 September 2001, in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL STAKEHOLDER ROUNDTABLE � WEST ASIA REGION: This roundtable will be held on 24-25 September 2001, in Manama, Bahrain. For more information, contact: Mahmood Abdulraheem, Director, UNEP Regional Office for West Asia, Manama, Bahrain; tel: +973-826-600; fax: +973-823-110/1; e-mail: uneprowa@batelco.com.bh; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

SOUTHERN NGO SUMMIT: This summit will take place from 8-10 October 2001, in Algiers, Algeria, to prepare for the World Summit on Sustainable Development. For more information, contact: Esmeralda Brown, Southern Caucus Chairperson, New York; tel: +1-212-682-3633; fax: +1-212-682-5354; e-mail: ebrown@gbgm-umc.org

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN REGION: This meeting will be held on 23-24 October 2001, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � WEST ASIA REGION: This meeting will be held from 28-30 October 2001, in Cairo, Egypt. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: This meeting will be held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 27-29 November 2001, pending funding. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

SECOND PREPARATORY SESSION FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place from 28 January � 8 February 2002, at UN Headquarters in New York. It will review the results of national and regional preparatory processes, examine the main policy report of the Secretary-General, and convene a Multi-stakeholder Dialogue. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org.

THIRD PREPARATORY SESSION FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place at UN Headquarters in New York, from 25 March � 5 April 2002. It is expected to produce the first draft of a "review" document and elements of the future work programme of the CSD. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org.

FOURTH PREPARATORY SESSION FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place from 27 May � 7 June 2002, in Bali, Indonesia. It will include Ministerial and Multi-stakeholder Dialogue Segments, and is expected to result in elements for a concise political document to be submitted to the 2002 Summit. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org.

WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: The World Summit on Sustainable Development will take place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2-11 September 2002. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA, New York; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org.

This issue of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin � enb@iisd.org is written and edited by Jonathon Hanks jon@iisd.org, Wendy Jackson wendy@iisd.org, Wagaki Mwangi wagaki@iisd.org, and Alison Ormsby alison@iisd.org. The Digital Editors are Leila Mead leila@iisd.org and Ken Tong ken@iisd.org. The Editor is Pamela S. Chasek, Ph.D. pam@iisd.org and the Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI kimo@iisd.org. The Operations Manager is Marcela Rojo marcela@iisd.org and the On-Line Assistant is Diego Noguera diego@iisd.org. The Sustaining Donors of the Bulletin are the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Government of Canada (through CIDA), the United States (through USAID), the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), the United Kingdom (through the Department for International Development - DFID, and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office), the European Commission (DG-ENV), the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Government of Germany (through German Federal Ministry of Environment - BMU, and the German Federal Ministry of Development Cooperation - BMZ). General Support for the Bulletin during 2001 is provided by the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Environment of Norway, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Environment of Finland, the Government of Australia, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Japan Ministry of Environment (through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - IGES). The Bulletin can be contacted by e-mail at enb@iisd.org and at tel: +1-212-644-0204; fax: +1-212-644-0206. IISD can be contacted by e-mail at info@iisd.ca and at 320 E 46th St., APT 32A, New York, NY�10017-3037, USA. The opinions expressed in the Earth Negotiations Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and other funders. Excerpts from the Earth Negotiations Bulletin may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists and can be found on the Linkages WWW server at http://enb.iisd.org. Free subscriptions available at http://iisd.ca/enb/email.asp. The satellite image was taken above New York �2001 The Living Earth, Inc. For information on the Earth Negotiations Bulletin, or to arrange for reporting from your conference or workshop send e-mail to kimo@iisd.org.

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