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Coverage of Selected Side Events at the Marrakech Climate Change Conference - November 2016

7-18 November 2016 | Marrakech, Morocco

Highlights for Tuesday, 8 November 2016

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Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) as building blocks to drive Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) ImplementationPresented by the New Nordic Climate Solutions, Danish Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate; Ministry of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica (MINAE); and Colombian Strategy for Low-Carbon Development



This event was moderated by Ash Sharma, Danida, who presented experiences from the NAMA Facility.

Caspar Olausson, Danish Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate, acknowledged that international attention has moved from NAMAs to NDCs, and proposed that NAMAs contribute to transforming NDCs into concrete implementable and financeable programmes and projects. He explained that climate change donors from his country support creating enabling environments, mainstreaming climate change in policies and regulations, capacity building and institutional strengthening, and mobilizing private finance.

Iván Darío Valencia, Colombia’s Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, introduced projects on Transport Oriented Development (TOD) and on promoting domestic HFC-free refrigerators as well as their corresponding NAMA financial structure. He discussed four TOD NAMA city projects and a project to introduce 4.7 million HFC-free refrigerators in Colombia.

Andrea Meza Murillo, Costa Rica’s Ministry of Environment and Energy, presented on a low-carbon coffee project in Costa Rica. She noted that the private sector sees this low-emission coffee project as an opportunity of increasing productivity by reducing inefficiencies in mitigation and adaptation.

Highlighting the impact that the recent Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer would have on the air conditioning sector, Natthanich Asvapoositkul, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand, presented on a €14.7 million project for the sector-wide transition to using climate-friendly energy efficient cooling technologies.

In the ensuing discussion, participants addressed the importance of, inter alia: NAMAs post-Paris; NAMA support for the private sector to adopt new technologies; and barriers and success criteria in NAMA implementation.


Andrea Meza Murillo, Ministry of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica, noted that the coffee sector accounts for nearly a quarter of Costa Rica’s agricultural and livestock sector emissions and national areas under agriculture production.

Iván Darío Valencia, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Colombia, presented on projects on Transport Oriented Development and on the domestic refrigeration sector to promote HFC-free refrigerators in Colombia, along with their corresponding NAMA financial structure.

Ash Sharma, Danida, moderated the event on NAMAs as building blocks to drive NDCs Implementation.

Caspar Olausson, Danish Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate, explained that NAMA complements bilateral collaboration.

Natthanich Asvapoositkul, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand, drew attention to the fact that the energy sector represents 73% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Thailand.

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Opportunities for Africa in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)Presented by the University of Texas at Austin, the Carbon Capture and Storage Association (CCSA) and the European Network of Excellence on Geological Storage of CO2 (CO2GeoNet)

This side event, moderated by Tim Dixon, International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Programme (IEAGHG), considered progress towards CCS deployment in Africa and global CCS onshore and offshore developments relevant for Africa. Dixon provided an overview of CCS development under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), highlighting the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Joseph Essandoh-Yeddu, Energy Commission, Ghana, noted that the continent is rich in energy resources but poor in energy supply. He stressed that Africa has hardly benefitted from the carbon market under the Kyoto Protocol, highlighting opportunities for carbon trade under new carbon market mechanisms, as well as for knowledge and technology transfers.

Tony Surridge, South African National Energy Development Institute, provided an overview of CCS development in South Africa. Noting the country’s heavy reliance on fossil fuels, he described CCS as a transition technology and a part of the national long-term mitigation scenarios. He presented on the South African CCS Road Map, highlighting the legal and regulatory frameworks as well as the inclusion of stakeholder engagement.

Discussing the Boundary Dam CCS project in Saskatchewan, Canada, the world’s first commercial scale, post-combustion CCS project at a coal-fired generating station, Michael Monea, International CCS Knowledge Centre, underscored the Centre’s mandate and mission to advance the understanding and use of CCS as a means of managing GHG emissions, and to accelerate deployment of CCS worldwide.

Ton Wildenborg, CO2GeoNet, provided an overview of CCS pilot projects in Europe, focusing on opportunities for collaboration. He described the K12-B pilot, located offshore of the Netherlands in the North Sea and stressed the role for forerunner countries to help build capacity in other regions.

Katherine Duncker Romanak, the University of Texas at Austin, addressed specific actions to get countries on the path of CCS. Noting that offshore CO2 storage potential is “huge” and stressing available technical assistance on climate technologies for developing countries, she highlighted the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) and the Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC).

Felicia Chinwe Mogo, Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA), highlighted, via a video message, the Nigerian pathway towards CCS, noting the potential financial gains and employment opportunities that can be generated through the sustainable utilization of resources in the marine environment.

In the ensuing discussion, participants addressed, inter alia: the potential for offshore CCS; potential negative implications due to leakages; comparisons between CCS and biological carbon reduction methods;the transferability of technology and associated high costs; the use of organic versus non-organic fertilizers in agriculture; and funding challenges related to CCS technologies deployment.

From L-R: Joseph Essandoh-Yeddu, Energy Commission, Ghana; Tony Surridge, South African National Energy Development Institute; Michael Monea, International CCS Knowledge Centre; Ton Wildenborg, CO2GeoNet; and Katherine Duncker Romanak, the University of Texas at Austin

Katherine Duncker Romanak, the University of Texas at Austin, stressed that opportunities are available at all levels for getting on the path of CCS.

Tony Surridge, South African National Energy Development Institute, said that CCS is included in the country’s national development plan 2030.

Discussing CCS, Tim Dixon, IEAGHG, noted that actions need to be pursued by stakeholders in all sectors to achieve an optimal transition strategy.

Drawing attention to the world’s first commercial scale, post-combustion CCS project, Michael Monea, International CCS Knowledge Centre, stressed that “we now know that the technology works.”

Ton Wildenborg, CO2GeoNet, underscored the organization’s long track record regarding collaboration activities at laboratory and pilot scale levels.

Indigenous Peoples and the Green Climate Fund: Challenges and prospects (including direct access to the funds)Presented by the Tebtebba Foundation

This side event, moderated by Grace Balawag, Tebtebba Foundation, addressed the challenges and prospects of indigenous peoples having direct access to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

Balawag provided an overview of indigenous peoples’ engagement with other global processes and funding mechanisms, underscoring the necessity of their full and effective engagement in these processes. She said that, in some instances, advisory groups have been established to meet this need. She urged that the GCF effectively engage with indigenous peoples to: develop relevant policies and frameworks; establish safeguards and grievance mechanisms; provide guidelines for engagement; and create a dedicated grant for Indigenous Peoples.

Stanley Kimaren Riamit, Executive Director, Indigenous Livelihoods Enhancement Partners (ILEPA), Kenya, lamented the GCF’s indirect recognition of indigenous peoples, saying that this is because the International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) Environmental and Social Performance Standards have been adopted as interim safeguards. Kimaren Riamit said that development of an appropriate policy for the GCF would allow for free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) for approved projects.

Joan Carling, Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact (AIPP), said that some of the approved GCF projects pose serious threats to indigenous peoples, citing a dam project in Nepal. She said that while the GCF has adopted the IFC standards as interim safeguards, these were not considered in the Nepalese dam project. She stressed that there is a need to recognize indigenous peoples' rights and obtain their consent to the use of their land and resources, properly compensate them for such usage and include them in a benefit-sharing arrangement, should consent be provided.

Tarcila Rivera Zea, Executive Director, Centre for Indigenous Cultures in Peru (CHIRAPAQ), provided an overview of indigenous peoples’ experiences in Peru, underscoring that their knowledge systems contribute to food production and climate resilience through using indigenous knowledge to select appropriate crops and technology. She said that an alliance has been formed between two local communities to share knowledge and culture for enhanced food production.

During discussions, participants addressed: the appropriateness of indigenous peoples having direct access to the GCF; Indigenous peoples’ accessing GCF funding through country-driven processes; the use of philanthropic organizations as a funding and advocacy pathway; and IFC standards as a minimum standard for the GCF.

From L-R: Tarcila Rivera Zea, Executive Director, CHIRAPAQ, Peru; Grace Balawag, Tebtebba; Stanley Kimaren Riamit, Executive Director, ILEPA, Kenya; and Joan Carling, AIPP

Joan Carling, AIPP, said that if the Paris Agreement is to be effectively implemented, “we must go beyond business as usual and recognize indigenous peoples’ rights to ensure that their knowledge, culture and well-being continue.”

Tarcila Rivera Zea, Executive Director, CHIRAPAQ, said that awareness of indigenous peoples’ knowledge is not lacking, but rather that their knowledge is undervalued.

Grace Balawag, Tebtebba Foundation, said that full and effective participation of indigenous peoples leads to a common understanding of indigenous peoples and their needs.

Stanley Kimaren Riamit, Executive Director, ILEPA, Kenya said that indigenous peoples’ inclusion in the GCF interim safeguards is not a “contemplated” inclusion, and thus the GCF is “Indigenous Peoples-light.”

Room view during the event

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The role of non-state actors in enhancing near-term ambition and promoting the implementation of the Paris AgreementPresented by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Avina and Climate Action Network (CAN)

Moderator Wael Hmaidan, Director, CAN, presented several questions to the panelists, including on the role of non-state actors in global climate action, and how to raise ambition.

Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF Global Climate and Energy Practice Leader, called for innovative financial mechanisms, improved transparency and accountability. He suggested that parties report at the global level and to their citizens in order to engage them in climate action.

Asking how to develop stronger partnerships between state and non-state actors, Hakima El Haité, High-level Climate Champion, Morocco, suggested integrating non-state climate actions within Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Calling cities “climate leaders,” Katarina Luhr, Stockholm Vice Mayor of Environment, Sweden, called for measuring and reporting cities’ emissions to share what cities have done and to learn from each other. 

Stating that “the Global Climate Action Agenda has provided the courage for companies to act,” Verena Treber, Allianz Climate Solutions GmbH, noted that over 200 million equities were divested from coal-based business models.

Frances Way, Carbon Disclosure Project, highlighted that almost 200 companies have committed to science-based targets, with many having committed to 100% renewable energy targets.

Calling for moving from commitment to implementation, Ramiro Fernández, Director of Climate Change, Avina, encouraged a more prominent role for civil society to reinforce the Global Climate Action Agenda.

Laurence Tubiana, High-Level Climate Champion, France, called for governments and civil society actors to come together in Marrakech to produce a plan of action before 2018.

The ensuing discussion addressed, inter alia: how to connect climate actions to the World Economic Forum; how energy taxes can support a transition to renewables; and the need to show the value of both state and non-state climate actions.

From L-R: Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF Global Climate and Energy Practice Leader; Ramiro Fernández, Director of Climate Change, Avina; Katarina Luhr, Vice Mayor of Environment of Stockholm, Sweden; Frances Way, Carbon Disclosure Project; and Verena Treber, Allianz Climate Solutions GmbH

Katarina Luhr, Stockholm Vice Mayor of Environment, Sweden, explained that cities are competing to be the strongest on climate action, calling this competition useful for building ambition and for learning.

Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF Global Climate and Energy Practice Leader, called the Global Climate Action Agenda a “collective, collaborative and integrative effort.”

Hakima El Haité, High-Level Climate Champion, Morocco, underscored the importance of non-state actors in implementing climate actions, stating that these actions should “fit together” to close the pre-2020 emissions gap.

Traditional Indigenous Peoples’ Knowledge as a Viable Way for Climate Change AdaptationPresented by Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact (AIPP), the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), Tanzania Indigenous Peoples Taskforce on Climate Change (TIPTCC), Pastoralists Indigenous Non-Governmental Organizations Forum (PINGOs Forum), Congrès Mondial Amazigh (CMA), Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN) and Mainyoito Pastoralists Integrated Development Organisation (MPIDO)

This side event, moderated by Kathrin Wessendorf, IWGIA, aimed to promote solutions to maximize adaptation efforts and interventions through integration of indigenous peoples’ knowledge.

Kamira Nait Sid, CMA, provided an overview of traditional practices and knowledge of the Amazighen people (Berbers) relevant to climate change, an ethnic group indigenous to many countries of North Africa. Proposing to create a database of traditional knowledge open to all humankind, she focused on their calendar divisions linked with agricultural practices, cultivations’ rotation and spiritual connection with nature.

Kittisak Rattanakrajansgsri, AIPP, focused on the holistic land use and livelihoods system of indigenous peoples as a means to adapt to climate change. Using a case study from the Huay Hin Lad Nai community in Thailand, he addressed, among others: categories of land types and land use; rice cultivation practices; and mixed farming. He concluded that the way the community uses resources reflects their intricate knowledge of the different ecosystems within their territory.

Edward Porokwa, PINGOs Forum, Tanzania, noted that addressing climate change in East Africa is a matter of state policies with little regard for indigenous knowledge and existing livelihoods. Pointing to the negative perceptions of pastoralism, he underscored that indigenous peoples’ knowledge needs to be integrated into policy making and implementation of climate change actions.

Stressing that climate change is mainly felt at the household level thus making women critical agents, Joseph Ole Simel, MPIDO, Kenya, said that Western influence has “undermined and crushed” the traditional knowledge of many indigenous peoples. Underscoring the need for a link among the broad principles of the Paris Agreement and the realities of people on the ground, he urged bringing traditional knowledge and women to the center of the discussion.

Noting that indigenous knowledge is key to combatting climate change and underscoring the need to protect indigenous peoples’ rights, Tunga Bhadra Rai, NEFIN, said that the production and reproduction of social, cultural, political and environmental values of indigenous peoples are embedded in their local environment and nature.

During discussions, participants addressed, inter alia: the ratification process of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); the relationship between scientific research and traditional knowledge; and ways to further recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights.

From L-R: Edward Porokwa, PINGOs Forum, Tanzania; Kittisak Rattanakrajansgsri, AIPP; Tunga Bhadra Rai, NEFIN; Joseph Ole Simel, MPIDO, Kenya; and Kamira Nait Sid, CMA

Discussing the Huay Hin Lad Nai community in Thailand, Kittisak Rattanakrajansgsri, AIPP, underscored the complex system of land use, which must be approached holistically.

Edward Porokwa, PINGOs Forum, Tanzania, noted that modern conservation ideas often involve “conservation without people.”

Kamira Nait Sid, CMA, underscored that traditional knowledge must be analyzed, supported and integrated into scientific research.

Equity, Differentiation and Ambition in the Post-Paris RegimePresented by Climate Action Network Canada (CAN-Rac)

Alison Doig, Christian Aid, moderated the event, asking why equity is still an issue within the climate change negotiations.

Reflecting on the history of the climate change negotiations, Anju Sharma, Oxford Climate Policy, recalled that, in climate change discussions, fairness and equity are “unspoken topics.” She suggested that those involved in the process of formulating Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) share their perspectives with other interested stakeholders giving sufficient time for comment.

Stating that the global climate response needs to be fair in order to be effective, Sivan Kartha, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), explained that a country is more likely to be successful in addressing climate change if other countries perceive they are doing their fair share and all other countries are also doing their part.

Acknowledging that a focus on the 1.5°C target may detract from the necessary focus on equity, Lidy Nacpil, Asian Peoples Movement on Debt and Development, said that equity must continue to be a key focus and should be considered together with finances in order to support action.

Christian Holz, Climate Equity Reference Project, outlined elements which should be included within the global stocktake, including: differentiation; disaggregation; explicit attention to equity; and a role for civil society.

Stating that climate funding for developing countries should not be redirected from other concerns, Timmons Roberts, Brown University, called for adequate, predicable and “just” finance, cautioning that current pledges are unclear and inadequate, including their allocation and delivery.

The ensuing discussion considered, inter alia: how to address equity across the entire UN system; secured finance for adaptation; a civil society review; clear understanding of a baseline; and historical emissions.

From L-R: Christian Holz, Climate Equity Reference Project; Anju Sharma, Oxford Climate Policy; Sivan Kartha, SEI; Alison Doig, Christian Aid; Timmons Roberts, Brown University; and Lidy Nacpil, Asian Peoples Movement on Debt and Development

Referring to the climate change negotiation process, Anju Sharma, Oxford Climate Policy, called moral and ethical considerations “inherently relational.”

Calling for a focus on equity, Sivan Kartha, SEI, said that a fair agreement is more likely to work.

Lidy Nacpil, Asian Peoples Movement on Debt and Development, reiterated that equity is not just a principle of justice but also a practical necessity.

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The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the Side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This issue has been written by Karen Alvarenga, Katherine Browne, Bo-Alex Fredvik, Tallash Kantai, Jennifer Lenhart, Ph.D., Kate Louw, Miquel Muñoz Cabre, Nicole de Paula, and Asterios Tsioumanis, Ph.D. The Digital Editors are Mike Muzurakis and Liz Rubin. The Editor is Elena Kosolapova, Ph.D. <elena@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the Marrakech Climate Change Conference - November 2016, can be found on the IISD Reporting Services website at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop22/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at the Marrakech Climate Change Conference - November 2016, can be contacted by e-mail at <tallash@iisd.org>.

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IISD Reporting Services is grateful to the many donors of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) and recognizes the following as core contributors to the ENB: the European Union, the Government of Switzerland (the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN)), the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. General Support for the Bulletin during 2016 is provided by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, SWAN International, the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Japanese Ministry of Environment (through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - IGES), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Funding for translation of the Bulletin into French has been provided by the Government of France, the Wallonia, Québec, and the International Organization of La Francophonie/Institute for Sustainable Development of La Francophonie (IOF/IFDD).