ENB on the side
published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat

Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-10

6 - 17 December 2004 | Buenos Aires, Argentina

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6 December 2004

7 December 2004

8 December 2004

9 December 2004

10 December 2004

11 December 2004

13 December 2004

14 December 2004

15 December 2004

16 December 2004

17 December 2004

Brief Analysis



Events convened on Monday, 13 December 2004

Cities for climate protection: Mayors fight global warming 

Presented by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)

Anibal Ibarra, Mayor of Buenos Aires, Argentina, welcomed the Mayors of other cities involved in local actions to combat climate change, highlighting that cities play a crucial role in designing and implementing climate change-related policies

Anibal Ibarra, Mayor of Buenos Aires, Argentina, stressed cities’ central role in addressing climate change and the importance of involving all cities in designing and implementing mitigation policies.

Ross Rocky Anderson, Mayor of Salt Lake City, US, outlined “Salt Lake City Green,” an environmental initiative applied to municipal operations, businesses and individuals, including programs designed at improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. He explained that Salt Lake City implements a high-performance buildings project aimed at minimizing the environmental impacts of construction, through the use of energy-efficient lighting, among others. He noted that ICLEI had been instrumental in implementing “Salt Lake City Green,” by providing necessary software and planning materials.

Patricia Ross, Councilor of Abbotsford, Canada, highlighted actions against the construction of a fossil-fuel power plant, and municipal environmental programs in the field of private and public transport, corporate environmental responsibility, waste conversion, and domestic energy consumption.  


Patricia Ross, Councilor of Abbotsford, Canada, said her city works with the corporate community, using incentives such as free advertising to encourage businesses to become environmentally responsible

Domenico Zampaglione, Council member of Milan, Italy, said Milan’s activities to reduce GHG emissions focus on: the development of co-generation; provision of incentives to use natural gas and efficient heating systems technologies; and the use of renewable energy sources. He said Milan’s urban transport and transit system strategy promotes alternative fuels and low impact motorization systems, and noted that the city aims to increase its use of hydrogen fuel cells.

Marcello Lelis, Council member of Palmas, Brazil, highlighted his city’s preparation of an inventory for GHG emissions, use of organic waste for energy, and participation in Brazil's energy efficiency program. He said Palmas had developed its Project Design Document, and noted that the city’s urban carbon sequestration project involves all sectors of environmental management.

Imma Mayol, Deputy Mayor of Barcelona, Spain, indicated that Barcelona’s strategic ten-year plan is to reduce power use by 17% and GHG emissions by 20% by 2012, through the implementation of programs related to energy efficiency and use of renewable energy. She noted the adoption of construction standards and measures to reduce emissions from the public transport sector.

Bob Price, ICLEI, invited the panelists to sign the Local Government Declaration, which stresses mayors’ commitment to continue actions to combat climate change and seek additional resources from the private sector and central governments for implementation. He presented ICLEI’s activities related to the World Environment Day to be held in San Francisco, from 1-5 June 2005, and the Target Zero initiative, aimed at gathering commitment from cities around the world to exceed the Kyoto Protocol targets and achieve zero emissions growth.

Discussion: Participants enquired about various cities' programs. Regarding Buenos Aires, the adoption of an atmospheric quality standard act was noted, as well as the focus of the city’s climate protection program on expanding the subway system, increasing public streetlights efficiency, and promoting non-motorized transport and less carbon-intensive fuels.
More information:


Bob Price <bprice@iclei.org>  

Climate change Forum: Presentations of new non-Annex I National Communications, and on financial and technical support

Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat

Walter Vergara, World Bank, said National Communications need to be coordinated closely with adaptation activities

Martha Perdomo, UNFCCC, said 120 initial communications had been submitted by non-Annex-I Parties, representing 80% of submitted National Communications, while 65 non-Annex I Parties were in the process of preparing their second National Communication.

Dominique Revet, UNFCCC, reported on the workshop of the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from non-Annex I Parties, noting that training material for vulnerability and adaptation is under preparation. He said a global workshop on mitigation is planned for September 2005.

Yamil Bonduki, UNDP, spoke on support provided to non-Annex I countries preparing National Communications, including self-assessment exercises and preparation of project proposals. He said the National Communications Support Programme of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), UNDP and UNEP will assist all non-Annex I Parties to follow a flexible, needs-based approach, and identified core areas including inventories, adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer, and integration of climate change issues into development policies.

Ian Tellam, ETC Foundation, presented the Netherlands’ Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme (NCCSAP), implemented by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and involving 14 non-Annex I countries. He said the programme aims at assisting developing countries in the preparation, formulation, implementation and evaluation of climate change policies, and in raising awareness about climate change. He said the NCCSAP study areas include water, agriculture, health and disaster preparedness.

Walter Vergara, World Bank, discussed financial and technical assistance for second National Communications, identifying small-island and high-mountain ecosystems as specially vulnerable areas. Vergara presented two support instruments, namely the GEF’s Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) and the Climate Change Special Program to support SPA project preparations.

R.P. Kabwaza, Malawi’s Ministry of Mines, Natural Resources and Environment, outlined the preparation process for the Initial National Communication of Malawi, and recommended, inter alia, improving energy balance sheets, enhancing human capacity, increasing funding for future National Communications, and preparing National Action Plans.

Nagmeldin Elhassan, Sudan’s Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources, presented Sudan’s First National Communication, noting that the expected climate change impacts include decreased crop production areas, a decline of crop yields, increased water deficits, and changes in the distribution and intensity patterns of malaria.

Martha Perdomo <mperdomo@unfccc.int>
Dominique Revet <drevet@unfccc.int>
Yamil Bonduki <yamil.bonduki@undp.org>
Ian Tellam <ian.tellam@etcnl.nl>
Walter Vergara <wvergara@worldbank.org>
R.P. Kabwaza <rkabwaza@sdnp.org.mw>
Nagmeldin Elhassan <goutbi@yahoo.com>

Technology transfer and the UNFCCC: Practical approaches for responding to developing country priorities

Presented by the Secretariat of the UNFCCC

Richard Bradley, IEA, said a sustainable energy system requires more rapid technology transfer

Nick Campbell, International Chamber of Commerce, highlighted the need to exploit business opportunities, research and development (R&D) and technology in addressing climate change.

Margaret Martin, Natural Resources Canada, outlined the activities of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice emphasizing the importance of enabling environments in attracting sustainable investment.

Larisa Dobriansky, US Department of Energy Policy and International Affairs, emphasized the role of technology needs assessment, and said financing is a major barrier to cleaner technologies. She stressed the role of governments in creating enabling environments and bringing together relevant stakeholders.

Richard Bradley, IEA, said 90% of the increase in global energy demand by 2030 will be met by fossil fuels based on policies enacted in July 2004, but stressed that alternative policies could reduce GHG emissions by 16% and create savings by avoiding supply-side investment in fossil fuel technologies.

Highlighting the role of local manufacturing and engineering in technology transfer, James Wolf, American Standard Companies, said technologies marketed through American Standard Companies are now produced in China.

Brian Flannery, ExxonMobile, highlighted the success in phasing-out leaded gasoline in Sub-Saharan Africa, through a public-private partnership involving inter-governmental organizations, governments, NGOs and businesses.

Sergio Ennes, Clean Air, focused on renewable energy potential in Brazil, especially wood gasification in the Amazon region, emphasizing that 400,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions could be eliminated during the next ten years.

Norine Kennedy, United States Council for International Business, emphasized the need to rapidly transfer technology. She said sectoral approaches can yield benefits, but stressed that cross-sectoral linkages must not be ignored.

Nick Campbell <nick.campbell@arkemagroup.com>
Margaret Martin <memartin@nrcan.gc.ca>
Larisa Dobriansky <larisa.dobriansky@hq.doe.gov>
Richard Bradley <richard.bradley@iea.org>
James Wolf <jwolf@americanstandard.com>
Brian Flannery <brian.p.flannery@exxonmobil.com>
Sergio Ennes <sergio.ennes@attglobal.net>
Norine Kennedy <nkennedy@uscib.org>

Energy Perspectives on climate change

Presented by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

Lewis Fulton, IEA, said biofuels are cheaper than gasoline in some countries such as Brazil, and can replace 10% of global gasoline use at low cost

Richard Bradley, IEA, presented global trends in energy consumption and carbon emissions, noting that 80% of emissions in 2002 originated from 22 countries representing 80% of the global gross domestic product (GDP).
Laura Cozzi, IEA, presented on the world energy outlook. She said without major policy changes, global emissions will grow by 62% between 2002 and 2030, with developing countries’ emissions surpassing those of developed countries in the 2020s.

Cdric Philibert, IEA, discussed solar power technologies, stressed that their market potential depends on geographic location and sunlight levels, and noted that existing facilities are concentrated in countries that are not bound by Kyoto Protocol commitments, such as the US, Australia and some developing countries. He outlined IEA’s work to facilitate international collaboration on solar energy but stressed that national policies remain decisive.

Lewis Fulton, IEA, said long-term transport technologies such as hydrogen fuel cells and electric engines face significant obstacles such as high production costs and storage difficulties, and that market penetration of hydrogen technologies before 2020 is unlikely. Fulton stressed the promise of short-term options such as fuel economy improvements, biofuels production, and changes in transport systems, emphasizing that they can produce dramatic carbon reductions at very low costs.

Martina Bosi, IEA, presented a study on industrial competitiveness under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. She stressed that, by 2020, carbon reductions will cause only modest cost increases in energy-intensive industries, with projected profit losses ranging from 0.4-8% and price increases ranging from 0.5-3.4%.

Nicolas Lefevere-Marton, IEA, presented a new framework for measuring energy security, describing its application to four countries, and said energy security will be affected by fuel “market concentration” of oil producers, which is projected to increase by 75-89% by 2030.

Antonio Pflger, IEA, spoke on technological options for reducing carbon, including energy-efficiency improvements, renewable energy, and carbon storage. He stated that significant reductions in energy consumption can be achieved at low or even negative costs, and would lead to energy security improvements, stronger economic competitiveness, and climate mitigation. Noting a decrease in public funding for R&D related to renewable energy, he identified a need for incentives to create market conditions favorable to technological innovation.


Richard Bradley <richard.bradley@iea.org>
Laura Cozzi <laura.cozzi@iea.org>
Cdric Philibert <cedric.philibert@iea.org>
Lewis Fulton <lew.fulton@iea.org>
Martina Bosi <martina.bosi@iea.org>
Nicolas Lefevere-Marton <nicolas.lefevere@iea.org>
Antonio Pflger <antonio.pflueger@iea.org>  

Options and insights: Advancing the international climate effort

Presented by the Pew Center

Daniel Bodansky, University of Georgetown, said while some proposals for the post-Kyoto era build on the Kyoto Protocol and the Kyoto mechanisms, others would radically change the design of the regime

Elliot Diringer, Pew Center, introduced the ongoing “Climate Dialogue” concerning the post-Kyoto era and aiming to develop “strawman proposals” on how to strengthen the climate regime. He said key issues include how to: engage major emitters; provide flexibility to accommodate national circumstances; integrate climate and development; adopt activity-based approaches; couple near-term action with long-term strategies; and address adaptation needs.

Jonathan Pershing, World Resources Institute (WRI), said in order to assist the “Climate Dialogue,” the WRI has compiled information on: GHG emissions, population and gross domestic product (GDP); carbon intensity; per capita emissions; emissions projections; and vulnerability and capacity.

Daniel Bodansky, University of Georgia, introduced the Pew Center’s report “International Climate Efforts beyond 2012: A Survey of the Process.” He said the report includes proposals on future negotiations within or outside the UNFCCC framework, the types of mitigation commitments required, adaptation, and implementation and compliance.

Amb. Michael Zammit Cutajar, Malta, said the “Climate Dialogue” provides political and economic reality checks and aims to provide options rather than set solutions.

Gao Feng, Chinese Ministry for Foreign Affairs, said future negotiations should be based on the UNFCCC as the legal and political framework, use sustainable development as a key principle, adopt a bottom-up approach, and combine technology with policies and measures.

Chadrashekhar Dasgupta, The Energy and Resources Institute (Teri), said the downward trend in carbon intensity in some developing countries may not entail the decoupling of growth and emissions in the long-term due to inter-sectoral shifts.


Elliot Diringer <diringere@pewclimate.org>
Jonathan Pershing <jpershing@wri.org>
Daniel Bodansky <bodansky@uga.edu>
Michael Zammit Cutajar <mzc@ch.inter.net>
Chadrashekhar Dasgupta <dasgupta@teri.res.in

Global collaboration for addressing energy issues in developing countries

Presented by the Government of Japan

Akio Morishima, Japan, said Japan’s energy consumption per unit of production has decreased by 50% since 1973 and today amounts to merely one-third that of the US

Hisashi Ishitani, Keio University, presented a report on global energy issues, noting that by 2030 global energy demand will increase by 60% and energy investments in developing countries will reach US$7.9 trillion, exceeding those in developed countries. He identified possible solutions to energy problems, including government cooperation on capacity building, private sector collaboration in improving energy efficiency, encouraging “unilateral CDM” projects, and simplifying additionality tests and baseline methodologies.

In a panel discussion, Amb. Chandrashekhar Dasgupta, India, said CDM plays only a marginal role in mitigating emissions from developing countries, and recommended developing nuclear energy CDM projects, using soft credits to improve technology transfer, and outsourcing technological research to reduce costs.

Gao Feng, Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said the Kyoto Protocol process presents a historic opportunity to solve energy problems and achieve sustainable development, pointed out that CDM is playing a marginal role in reducing emissions in developing countries, and stressed that the number of CDM projects depends on the size of the carbon market.

Gao Feng, Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stated that projected investments in China’s energy sector between 2000 and 2020 are US$1000 billion, and stressed that the number of CDM projects depends on the size of the carbon market

Amb. Masaki Konishi, Japan, listed possible actions toward a low-carbon economy, including changing lifestyles, implementation of CDM projects, integration of trade and development for technology transfer, and use of technology as an incentive for universal participation in current and future international policy frameworks.

Andrei Marcu, International Emissions Trading Association, stressed the central role of market mechanisms in technology development and transfer, identified cost-effective use of capital as a key policy driver, and advocated a shift to a sector-based versus country-based approach to climate change.

Akio Morishima, Japan’s Industrial Structure Council, presented Japan’s efforts to reduce GHG emissions, indicated that Japan has the highest energy efficiency among developed countries, and stressed that this makes its marginal abatement costs very high.

Harlan Watson, US Department of State, said the private sector accounts for 90% of all foreign investments in the energy sector, stressed the importance of mainstreaming climate change in the sustainable development policies of developing countries, and called for win-win solutions to poverty and climate change.


Hisashi Ishitani <ishitani@sfc.keio.ac.jp
Chandrashekhar Dasgupta <chandras36@hotmail.com>
Masaki Konishi <masaki.konishi@mofa.go.jp>
Andrei Marcu <marcu@ieta.org
Akio Morishima <morishima@iges.or.jp>
Harlan Watson <watsonhl@state.gov>

Business perspectives on CDM additionality and baselines

Presented by the Business Council for Sustainable Energy (BCSE)

Regarding the CDM EB’s additionality tool, Marcelo Junqueira, Econergy, said analyzing the impact of CDM registration on a project is unnecessary

Lisa Jacobson, BCSE, noted that her organization promoted the prompt start of small-scale CDM projects and the standardization of baselines, while opposing investment additionality for CDM projects.

Jose Eduardo Sanhueza, CDM Executive Board (EB), stressed that additionality is a crucial concept despite it never having been mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol or the Marrakesh Accords. He noted that the EB’s additionality tool is not mandatory and project developers can continue to develop other tools.

Marcelo Junqueira, Econergy, discussed the additionality of the Vale do Rosario CDM project, based on a barrier test, and lamented the EB’s additionality tool.

Tod Delaney, First Environment, said additionality analyses remain difficult to perform, validators’ decisions based on these analyses are highly subjective and that these factors introduce uncertainty into CDM validations.

Horst Biedermann, European Insulation Manufacturers Association, cautioned that the EU may fail to meet its Kyoto commitment if the emissions reductions potential of buildings is not considered.

Mark Trexler, Trexler Climate and Energy Services, said the CDM’s main problem is the imbalance between supply and demand resulting from the US and Australian opposition to ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, since the supply remains the same. He concluded that since the demand for carbon credits cannot be increased, the supply needs to be reduced.

John Kadyszewski, Winrock International, said a way to reduce the CDM supply is to strengthen the sustainable development objective.

Jorge Barrigh, Corporacin Andina de Fomento, called for supplementary proposals on additionality from business to ensure that the CDM will deliver.

Ben Pearson, CDM Watch, stressed that the CDM does not imply new emissions reductions but transfers the reduction from an Annex I to a non-Annex I country, noting that “fake Certified Emissions Reductions” that are not additional will undermine the Kyoto reduction targets.


Jose Eduardo Sanhueza <j.sanhueza@mi.cl>
Marcelo Junqueira <junqueira@econergy.com.br>
Tod Delaney <tod@firstenvironment.com>
Horst Biedermann <horst.biedermann@eurima.org>
Mark Trexler <mtrexler@climateservices.com>
John Kadyszewski <jkadyszewski@winrock.org>
Jorge Barrigh <jbarrigh@caf.com>
Ben Pearson <cdmwatch@ozemail.com.au>

Arctic climate impact assessment

Presented by the Government of Iceland

Robert Corell, ACIA, indicated that even with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions over the next century following IPCC’s B2 scenario commitments, it would take 1000 years for sea levels to stop rising, due to thermal expansion and ice melting

Robert Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), introduced the report “Impacts of a warming climate,” a scientific assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of climate change in the Arctic. He said from 1979-2003 the extent of the sea ice in the Arctic basin has decreased by 10% and the thickness by 40%. He explained how this reduces surface reflectivity and accelerates warming, and said the assessment predicts a sea level rise exceeding the 20-90 centimeters predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Pl Prestrud, ACIA, noted that global circulation models all predict a 40-50% decrease in Arctic sea ice between 2010-2090, indicating that populations of ice-dependent Arctic species will decline. He said with reduced ice cover, the navigation season will increase from 30 to 120 days, noting with irony that this will increase the accessibility of Arctic fossil fuel reserves.

Terry Callaghan, Abisko Scientific Research Station, described how Arctic vegetation zones are expected to shift, with the treeline moving north and displacing tundra habitats in some areas. He explained how rapid climate change will result in forest fires, pest outbreaks and disease, and indicated that coastal communities will be subject to coastal erosion, increased flooding, and coastal retreat. He noted that thawing permafrost will affect ecosystems and result in increased emissions of methane, as well as disrupting transportation and destabilizing buildings and other infrastructure. 

Lars-Otto Reiersen, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, described the effects of climate change on indigenous peoples in the Arctic. He indicated that the environment has become less predictable, that travel modes must be adapted to thinning of the ice, and that access to resources has become restricted with negative impacts on human health, food security and culture.


Robert Corell <global@dmv.com>
P�l Prestrud <pal.prestrud@cicero.uio.no>
Lars-Otto Reiersen <lars-otto.reiersen@amap.no

Watch the UNFCCC webcast of Side Events




The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) � <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Rado Dimitrov, Ph.D., Catherine Ganzleben, D.Phil., Kati Kulovesi, Charlotte Salpin, and Christoph Sutter, Ph.D. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC COP-10 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from COP-10 can be found on the Linkages website at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop10/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at COP-10 can be contacted at Pabell�n 9 and by e-mail at <charlotte@iisd.org>.





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