ENB on the side
published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat

Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-10

6 - 17 December 2004 | Buenos Aires, Argentina

Daily Web Coverage & Daily Reports:

6 December 2004

7 December 2004

8 December 2004

9 December 2004

10 December 2004

11 December 2004

13 December 2004

14 December 2004

15 December 2004

16 December 2004

17 December 2004

Brief Analysis



Events convened on Tuesday, 7 December 2004

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board: question and answer session

Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat

CDM Executive Board Chair John Kilani addressed questions from the floor regarding the CDM process.

John Kilani, Chair of the CDM Executive Board (EB), provided an overview of the EB’s key outputs, including: approved baseline methodologies; accreditation of Designated Operational Entities (DOE); work on sink CDM projects; and the CDM registry.

Responding to some participants’ concerns over slow progress with the CDM process, Kilani emphasized the critical importance of private sector involvement in the CDM. He indicated that the EB’s mandate is to ensure the integrity of the CDM. He underscored that the high quality of DOEs and said Certified Emission Reductions (CER) is in the interest of the business sector. Georg Borsting, EB’s Vice-Chairman, stressed that the EB appreciates the views and input of the private sector.

Jean-Jacques Becker, EB, noted that the EB has already taken action to expedite the CDM process, such as developing the additionality tool. He said use of the approved methodologies should speed up the process, and

noted that new consolidated methodologies will only be considered in case several approved methodologies cover the same sector.
On the geographical distribution of DOEs, Richard Muyungi, EB, noted that, while all the accredited DOEs are from developed countries, some applications are from developing countries. He said the EB is concerned about the equitable geographical distribution of CDM projects. Becker noted that the EB does not have a mandate to determine the sectoral distribution of CDM projects, but will consider proposals submitted by any eligible sectors.

Regarding approval of CDM projects by Parties, Sushma Gera, EB, referred to a decision of the EB’s 16th meeting, which indicates that approval should be unconditional and project specific. Regarding CDM projects implemented through multilateral carbon funds, she said not all Annex I countries need to approve every project. She also indicated that any Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) projects can be approved under the CDM if they meet all the conditions, including the commencing date specified in the Marrakech Accords.

On the work of the EB, participants considered, inter alia: the likely increase in the EB’s workload and adequacy of resources; the need for guidance from the Conference of the Parties regarding certain types of projects; and the relationship between the EB and the Article 6 Supervisory Committee. On the CDM, participants discussed unilateral CDM projects and the number of accounts in the CDM registry. Regarding methodologies, participants addressed approval of sink projects, consistency between consolidated and individual methodologies, and the complexity of the approved methodologies. Participants also considered: the role of the Designated National Authorities (DNA); capacity building; differences between biomass and other renewable projects; and the need for further work to facilitate small-scale projects.


John Kilani <john.kilani@arm.co.za>
Georg Borsting <georgbor@online.no
Jean-Jacques Becker

Science in support of adaptation to climate change

Presented by the Delegation of Argentina and UNEP

Richard Klein, Potsdam Institute for Climate Change Research, discussed ways to make climate impact and adaptation research useful to local decision makers, and noted the need for studies on the probability of climate change and cost-benefit analyses of policies.

In a panel on lessons learnt from scientific assessments, Osvaldo Canziani, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, said more data is needed, and highlighted a reverse correlation between the costs of adaptation and the reduction of GHG emissions.

Linda Mearns, National Center for Atmospheric Research, described the utility of high-resolution regional models, which allow for more realistic depictions of topography and enable new types of studies on adaptation.

Jose Marengo, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos of Brazil, outlined Brazil’s efforts in assessing population sensitivity to climate change impacts and improving development of regional models.

Richard Klein, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, discussed ways to ensure that research related to climate impacts and adaptation is relevant to local-level decision making. He recommended integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, and said local decision makers need estimates of the probability of climate change, cost-benefit analyses of policies, and studies on the viability of alternative adaptation options.

Linda Mearns, National Center for Atmospheric Research, discussed the usefulness of higher-resolution regional models that enable new types of studies on adaptation.

Thomas Downing, Stockholm Environment Institute, proposed criteria to review research on adaptation, focusing on: combining qualitative and quantitative assessments; taking into account definitions of vulnerability by stakeholders; considering stakeholder validation of vulnerability depictions; and linking vulnerability assessments to the selection of adaptation strategies.

In a panel addressing a plan of action for science in support of adaptation, Walter Baethgen, Uruguay International Research Institute, asserted that adaptation is rarely on the policy agenda of developing countries, and said effective research requires the creation of multidisciplinary teams and stakeholder involvement.

Shem Wandiga, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, noted that disclosure of scientific facts has been essential to encourage ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and said implementation strategies should be based on promoting a wider understanding of environmental and socioeconomic issues.

Vincente Barros, University of Buenos Aires, stressed the distinction between long-term and current adaptation measures, saying that, in many areas, “autonomous” adaptation does not draw on academic research and can provide lessons for responses to climate change.

Rodel Lasco, World Agroforestry Centre, stressed that climate-related science in developing countries is very limited, and called for partnerships between the scientific communities of developing and developed countries.

Neil Leary, SysTem for Analysis, Research and Training Secretariat, stated that investments in science addressing global environmental change yield high pay-offs, underscored the importance of participatory assessments that produce usable knowledge, and said developing country governments have the responsibility to fund research.

Capacity needs of climate change policy development in the Balkans, Stability Pact countries and Turkey

Presented by the Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe (REC)

Maria Khovanskaia, REC, noted that local-level feasibility studies should investigate the potential for local co-funding, the role of local authorities, regional infrastructure and regional development strategies.

Zsuzsanna Ivanyi, REC, presented the results of a survey on the capacity of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro to meet their obligations related to GHG inventories as non-Annex I Parties. She noted that these countries experience common problems, including: a lack of technical equipment and expertise; inadequate financial resources; a legislative void; inadequate institutional frameworks; and a failure to assign responsibility for managing inventories to a specific institution.

Maria Khovanskaia, REC, outlined lessons learnt from the development of feasibility studies for Joint Implementation (JI) projects. She stressed that national-level feasibility studies should consider the existing legislative, institutional and administrative framework, as well as previous experience with JI. For individual installations, she said ownership, technology choices, and possible sources of emissions reductions should be considered. Regarding engagement of the private sector, she stressed the need to identify focal points within governments and include JI obligations in the terms of reference when privatizing industrial sectors. She suggested making use of confidentiality agreements as a proof of commitment from foreign investors.

Ivona Grozeva, Bulgaria’s Ministry of the Environment and Water, outlined her country’s approval process for JI projects, highlighting the role of her Ministry in assessing and approving projects. She provided information on a number of projects undertaken in cooperation with the Netherlands and Denmark, and a proposed project with Germany. She noted that these projects address energy efficiency, renewable energy, fuel switching and nitrogen oxide.

Zsuzsanna Ivanyi, REC, considered Turkey’s progress in the field of climate change, outlining scenarios for GHG emissions reductions, including: implementing advanced technology for electricity production; increasing the use of natural gas and the share of renewable energy; and improving consumption efficiency. Ivanyi highlighted a lack of finance, stakeholder participation and research as weaknesses, and listed Turkey’s geopolitical situation, leadership in renewable energy and accession to the EU as opportunities.

Zsuzsanna Iványi <zivanyi@rec.org>
Maria Khovanskaia <mkhova@rec.org
Ivona Grozeva <ji_grozeva@moew.government.bg>

Climate change – a development issue

Presented by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

Andrew Simms, New Economics Foundation, said a new development model is needed, which is both climate proof and climate friendly.

Andrew Simms, New Economics Foundation, introduced a new initiative by a coalition of development and environmental NGOs and their report “Up in Smoke –The Impact of Global Warming on Human Progress.” He said this initiative engages development organizations in activities related to climate change and promotes the public profile of the issue.

Saleemul Huq, IIED, called for South-South transfers of adaptation technologies, and said solutions should be developed at the local level by people who are already experiencing vulnerability.

Sarah La Trobe, Tearfund, emphasized that, while adaptation is not difficult to implement, it requires a shift in thinking. She said measures for disaster relief and climate change adaptation should be integrated with development programs.

Maria Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Greenpeace International, stressed the importance of partnerships between development and environmental organizations.

Antonio Hill, Oxfam, said poor people are most exposed and vulnerable to climate change at the same time as being least responsible for the problem. He outlined Oxfam’s threefold strategy to address the problem, which includes mitigation measures, know-how development and relief measures.

Catherine Pearce, Friends of the Earth, described the impacts of climate change already observable in Argentina, and underscored the need to reduce GHG emissions by 60-80% by the middle of this century.

Jennifer Morgan, WWF International, stressed the need to bring together individuals affected by climate change and those that have influence over climate policy, and invited more organizations to join the coalition on climate change and development.

Discussion: Participants enquired about the way the coalition intends to internationalize its work and how it plans to engage the donor community. Panelists said the coalition will use the international structures of their member organizations, as well as local partners, to ensure a global impact.


Andrew Simms <andrew.simms@neweconomics.org>
Saleemul Huq <saleemul.huq@iied.org>
Sarah La Trobe <sarah.latrobe@tearfund.org>
Maria Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros <athenar@dialb.greenpeace.org>
Antonio Hill <ahill@oxfam.org.uk>
Catherine Pearce <catp@foe.co.uk>
Jennifer Morgan <morgan@wwf.de>

Fire or flood: climate impacts and adaptation options for peatlands and biodiversity

Presented by the Global Environment Centre (GEC), Wetlands International, and Wildlife Habitat Canada

Faizal Parish, GEC, outlined the effects of climate change scenarios on permafrost peatlands, indicating that an estimated 50 gigatons of organic carbon may be released following melting, drying out and fires resulting from climate change.

Manuel Guariguata, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), outlined CBD’s activities related to climate change, noting opportunities to develop synergies between mitigation and adaptation and conserving biodiversity. He said these opportunities are rarely realized due to lack of coordination at national and international levels.

Faizal Parish, GEC, said peatlands play a key role in the global carbon cycle by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing 30% of terrestrial carbon. He said the impacts of climate change on peatlands include melting of permafrost peatlands, drying of continental interiors, and increased forest and peatland fires. He outlined next steps for peatlands management, including: assessing the status of peatlands and their importance for climate change mitigation; developing national strategies for sustainable use; and establishing regional and global management plans.

Andrey Sirin, Russian Academy of Science, outlined the cover and diversity of peatlands in his country. He identified main threats to peatlands, including peat extraction, fires, drainage and salination, and noted the need to designate peatlands as a main terrestrial carbon sink.

Daniel Blanco, Wetlands International, presented an inventory of the Patagonian peatlands, indicating that there are six main peatland zones characterized by different peatland types. He noted ecosystem services to local communities, including the provision of food and water resources.

Faizal Parish, GEC, outlined changes in the distribution and carbon content of peatlands in Sumatra between 1990 and 2002. Highlighting the negative effects of drainage on the peatland ecosystem, he noted that communities had learned to block channels dug in the peatlands in order to reduce drainage, raise the water table and reduce the risk of fire.


Manuel Guariguata <manuel.guariguata@biodiv.org>
Faizal Parish <fparish@genet.po.my>
Andrey Sirin <sirin@proc.ru>
Daniel Blanco <dblanco@wamani.apc.org>

Interlinkages: GEF cross-cutting support

Presented by the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Yamil Bonduki, UNDP, said the effectiveness of national strategies is often constrained by inadequate linkages between environmental strategies and budgetary decision making.

Habiba Gitay, Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) of the GEF, spoke on exploiting the interlinkages between the focal areas of the GEF, which include climate change, biodiversity, international waters, ozone depletion, persistent organic pollutants, and land degradation. She proposed a design tool to interlink the GEF’s focal areas, noting that the tool aims to maximize the benefits and minimize the negative effects of specific GEF projects on other focal areas. Identifying disincentives for projects dealing with interlinkages, she proposed to: establish fora within the GEF to develop outcome-oriented indicators; encourage the use of multiple reviewers; facilitate a full portfolio analysis of GEF projects; and encourage research projects.

Yamil Bonduki, UNDP, spoke on country experiences in implementing National Capacity Self Assessments (NCSA), outlining the future NCSA Global Support Programme, which will provide technical support to countries and develop a new vision for decentralized capacity building.

Sok Appadu, Mauritius Meteorological Services, presented the Mauritius’s technology needs assessment, including a barrier analysis of availability

and new technologies. He said demand-side management technologies have been given the highest priority in the electricity sector in Mauritius, followed by micro-solar systems and other renewable energy technologies.

Discussion: Participants enquired about ways of comparing the effects of a single project on different GEF focal areas. Gitay explained that the design tool proposed by STAP suggests checklists to identify the impacts, and indicated that guidelines for comparisons will be elaborated in the future. She stressed that there will always be trade-offs between different focal areas.


Habiba Gitay <gitay@cox.net>
Yamil Bonduki <yamil.bonduki@undp.org>
Sok Appadu <meteo@intnet.mu>

Adaptation: from assessment to action – UNFCCC
compendium on vulnerability and adaptation methods

Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat

Paul Desanker, Global Environmental Change Program, presented on PRIVA, a tool for adaptation and vulnerability assessments.

Olga Pilifosova, UNFCCC Secretariat, presented the history, structure and content of the UNFCCC compendium on vulnerability and adaptation methods, stressing that it comprises 90 methods and will continue to evolve.

Joel Smith, Stratus Consulting, discussed the selection of appropriate methods for assessing vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. He reviewed country studies conducted by the US and UNEP, and said the compendium represents a valuable, user-friendly gateway to existing methods.

Paul Desanker, Global Environmental Change Program, described PRIVA, a national-level tool for adaptation and vulnerability assessment geared toward developing countries.

Rodel Lasco, World Agroforestry Centre, presented the Philippines’

experience in sector-specific methods, and gave examples of assessments of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems and watersheds.

Sonia Vidic, Croatia’s Meteorological and Hydrological Service, recounted Croatia’s experience with top-down and bottom-up approaches to adaptation-related assessments. She emphasized that economic difficulties pose obstacles to assessment, and identified the need for stakeholder involvement and a supportive government.

Neal Leary, Assessments of Impact and Adaptation to Climate Change (AIACC), outlined AIACC’s activities, including capacity building and 24 regional assessments. He stressed that the UNFCCC compendium is only a starting point.

Bo Lim, UNDP, presented on UNDP’s efforts to provide improved technical resources, facilitate the efficient use of resources, and generate richer knowledge to support implementation. She described recent achievements such as the Adaptation Policy Framework, a set of technical resources for formulating and implementing adaptation.

John Harding, UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), recounted ISDR’s experience in collecting information on methods and tools for risk and vulnerability assessments. He noted challenges in distinguishing actual risk from perceived risk.

Discussion: Various participants said there is information overload without prioritization of methods, and noted that NGOs active in disaster management have rarely been consulted by scientists.


Olga Pilifosova <ekeip@unfccc.int>
Joel Smith <jsmith@stratusconsulting.com>
Paul Desanker <Desanker@psu.edu>
Rodel Lasco <rlasco@cgiar.org>
Sonia Vidic <vidic@cirus.dhz.hr>
Neil Leary <nleary@agu.org>
Bo Lim <Bo.Lim@undp.org>
John Harding <harding@un.org

Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios in Argentina

Presented by the Argentine Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD)

Virginia Vilariño presented the results of the study by the Argentine BCSD on different GHG emissions scenarios for Argentina.

Virginia Vilariño, BCSD Argentina, presented a study on GHG emission scenarios in Argentina by the BCSD. She said the study considered emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide until 2012 against a 1997 base year. She noted that the study comprised three emission scenarios, excluding mitigation measures: the Agro-Exporting Model, the Industrial Model, and the Power-Based Model. Vilariño said emissions will increase between 16-22 % in all three scenarios, and explained that the scenarios show similar emission trends for the different sectors. She noted that Argentina’s contribution to global emissions will still be marginal in 2012, but stressed that, in order for Argentina’s development to be sustainable, mitigation measures will be necessary for all sectors and should commence immediately.

Sergio Raballo, CAPSA, highlighted the need to stabilize global GHG emissions and fill the gap in energy supply resulting from a transition from a reliance on fossil fuels, and underscored the role of hydrogen in this transition. Raballo presented plans for large-scale wind hydrogen

production in the Argentine Patagonia, a project entailing the construction of a 16000 megawatt wind park over ten years. He highlighted the suitability of Patagonia for the project and the opportunity for Argentina to start hydrogen production. He said hydrogen projects require involving the economic sector and NGOs.


Virginia Vilariño <mvilarino@ceads.org.ar>
Sergio Raballo <sraballo@capex.com.ar>

Watch the UNFCCC webcast of Side Events




The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Rado Dimitrov, Ph.D., Catherine Ganzleben, D.Phil., Kati Kulovesi, Charlotte Salpin, and Christoph Sutter, Ph.D. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC COP-10 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from COP-10 can be found on the Linkages website at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop10/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at COP-10 can be contacted at Pabell�n 9 and by e-mail at <charlotte@iisd.org>.





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