ENB on the side
published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat

Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-10

6 - 17 December 2004 | Buenos Aires, Argentina

Daily Web Coverage & Daily Reports:

6 December 2004

7 December 2004

8 December 2004

9 December 2004

10 December 2004

11 December 2004

13 December 2004

14 December 2004

15 December 2004

16 December 2004

17 December 2004

Brief Analysis



Events convened on Wednesday, 8 December 2004

Assistance by the GEF to address capacity building and adaptation

Presented by the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Mozaharul Alam, Ministry of Environment and Forests of Bangladesh, said Bangladesh’s NAPA will consider synergies with multilateral environmental agreements, resource management and poverty alleviation.

Mozaharul Alam, Ministry of Environment and Forests of Bangladesh, presented Bangladesh’s National Adaptation Program for Action (NAPA) process, noting its multidisciplinary nature and stakeholder participation. He said the aim of the process is to identify immediate and urgent adaptation measures with cross-sectoral benefits. He explained the parameters and indicators used in assessing adaptation needs, and said adaptation measures will be prioritized on the basis of indicators such as impact on livelihoods, ecological conservation, and implementation costs. He highlighted the importance of considering funding potentials when selecting adaptation measures, and said delaying implementation would increase vulnerability and the future cost of adaptation.

Liza Leclerc, UNEP, indicated that Mauritania had completed its NAPA, and mentioned workshops and support that is being given to assist countries in NAPA preparations.

Bonizella Biagini, GEF, noted that the available GEF funding for adaptation amounts to US$ 110 million distributed through three funds, namely the Strategic Priority in Climate Change (SPA) Fund, the Least Developed 

Panelists considered the formulation of national adaptation policies, stressing the importance of early action and stakeholder involvement.

Country (LDC) Fund and the Special Climate Change (SCC) Fund. She emphasized that these funds are complementary, and said co-financing with other institutions is intended to simplify the funding process. Biagiani noted that the GEF’s current adaptation portfolio consists of four projects. She explained the Operational Guidelines for projects under the SPA Fund, saying candidate projects should, inter alia: be country-driven and integrated into national policy; achieve global environmental benefits; and disseminate lessons learnt. She also noted that the first elements of the LDC Fund are under development.

Carlos Costa Posada, Colombia’s Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, presented Colombia’s Integrated National Adaptation Pilot (INAP), noting that it concentrates on high-mountain ecosystems, Caribbean insular areas and human health. He said the INAP

builds on risks identified in the first National Communication, and aims to incorporate the expected impacts of climate change into sectoral policies, formulate specific programmes, and implement adaptation measures. He indicated that the INAP includes a monitoring and evaluation system.

Juan Carlos Romero, Ecuador’s Ministry of the Environment, presented his country’s National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) process, which focuses on the identification of capacity constraints in addressing climate change, biodiversity loss and desertification. He said the NCSA considered sectoral, cross-sectoral and specific frameworks, and highlighted the role of stakeholder consultations in the process. He explained that the outcomes include 12 Project Idea Notes, concrete initiatives, and an action plan that highlights the need to strengthen the Ministry of the Environment and adopt innovative tools for biodiversity conservation.

Discussion: Participants highlighted the importance of public participation in the NAPA and NCSA processes, in particular that of indigenous populations, and considered ways of organizing consultations at the community level. Participants also considered cooperation between various institutions, especially those not normally involved in climate change issues. Biagini highlighted the need to maximize cooperation between funding institutions, saying more should be done in this respect.

More information:


Mozaharul Alam <mozaharul@doe-bd.org>
Bonizella Biagini <bbiagini@thegef.org>
Liza Leclerc <liza.leclerc@unep.org>
Carlos Costa Posada <carloscostap@ideam.gov.co>
Juan Carlos Romero <ncsa@ambiente.gov.ec>

US actions to address climate change

Presented by the US

Ahsha Tribble, US Department of Commerce, said science should inform rather than dictate policy making, and stressed that her Department’s scientific programmes are open and transparent.

Ahsha Tribble, US Department of Commerce, introduced the Strategic Plan of the US Climate Change Science Programme, emphasizing that the aim of the programme is to reduce scientific uncertainty relating to climate change.

David Conover, US Department of Energy, noted the ambitious research and development agenda of his department’s Climate Change Technology Programme. He stressed that the programme aims to ensure that a diverse portfolio of candidate technologies compete in the market place. He noted that energy efficiency represents the largest investment area, and said tax incentives are used to promote energy efficiency.

Noting that the agricultural sector both contributes to GHG emissions and is vulnerable to climate change, Bruce Knight, US Department of Agriculture, stressed the need to mitigate the impact of climate change on farmers and identify their role in reducing emissions. Knight indicated that, while the costs of reducing GHG emissions fall on the agricultural sector, the benefits are public. He stressed that farmers should be able to

recover these costs, and identified the need to value and market emerging benefits.
Larisa Dobriansky, US Department of Energy, introduced Climate Vision, a voluntary programme including 13 partner associations that represent 90% of US industrial emissions. She noted that the programme aims to examine climate technology needs, evaluate possible funding mechanisms, and promote research and development (R&D) and technology diffusion.
Susan Wickwire, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), described the EPA’s voluntary climate change programmes, noting that they seek to address inefficiencies in the market and provide information, technical assistance, and recognition for environmental leadership.

Discussion: Noting the high cost of the Climate Change Science Programme, a participant questioned whether the US might not rather have relied on science emerging from the IPCC and better spent the money directly on mitigation efforts. Harlan Watson, US Department of State, indicated that the IPCC’s outputs do not represent the final word. A participant highlighted the fact that, even if the US Presidential Climate Change Strategy’s target to reduce GHG intensity by 18% by 2012 is met, overall US GHG emissions will increase by 14% from 2002-2012, to reach GHG emission levels of 32% above the 1990 baseline. A participant highlighted uncertainty among US corporations concerning the status of early action credits and baselines for action as a hurdle to their involvement in voluntary agreements.

BINGO anniversary event – 10 years of business achievements

Presented by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

Fiona Wain, Environment Business Australia, said the amount of energy that can be derived from a single deep-hot rock site is equivalent to 5 to 6 times that of Australia’s natural gas potential.

Joke Waller-Hunter, UNFCCC Executive Secretary, stressed that business is part of the solution to climate change, noting that industrial emissions are declining. She said the Kyoto Protocol’s entry into force will create incentives for investment in environmentally friendly technologies.

Nick Campbell, ARKEMA, introduced the ICC’s efforts to address climate change through the measurement of emissions and R&D of new technologies.

Laurent Corbier, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), highlighted WBCSD’s cooperation with the ICC.

James Wolf, US Business Council for Sustainable Energy, noted the Council’s efforts in introducing clean energy technologies, and said market access to new technologies would enhance compliance with the Kyoto Protocol.

In a panel on national organizations, Adriana Kowalewski, Argentina’s Association of Producers of Electricity (AGEERA), highlighted AGEERA’s achievements in enhancing thermoelectric power generation, noting that prices in Argentina are among the world’s lowest.

Noting uncertainties regarding the cost of adaptation and stressing that prevention is less expensive than cure, Fiona Wain, Environment Business Australia, said abatement and mitigation efforts should be increased, and discussed new technologies such as deep-hot dry-rock power generation, and water desalinization fueled by wave, tidal, solar and geothermal power.

Yoshihiko Nagasato, Japan Business Federation (Keidanren), discussed Keidanren’s voluntary action plan to contribute to reducing overall emissions below 1990 levels by 2010.

John Scowcroft, Union of the Electricity Industry, reviewed European advances in energy efficiency, underscored the need for systematic policy impact assessments, and stressed that unilateral advances on clean energy can have negative impacts on global competitiveness.
In a panel on international organizations, Emma Cornish, World Nuclear Association, said emissions-free nuclear energy accounts for 16% of the world’s energy production, and has allowed emissions reductions from the European energy sector by 56%.

Brian Flannery, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), said IPIECA contributes experts to the IPCC, seeks to improve operational efficiency, participates in commercial ventures on renewable energy, and organizes workshops and symposia on climate change.

Kristen Sukalac, International Fertilizer Industry Association, discussed emissions from ammonia production and the application of crop nutrients, stressing that energy consumption in ammonia plants is steadily declining.

Johanna Wickström, World LP Gas Industry, detailed the qualities and use of LP gas, noting that it consists of propane and butane, generates low levels of GHG emissions, and can be used for transportation, cooking and heating.

Jerry Marks, International Aluminium Institute, discussed voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions from the aluminum industry. He noted that the industry has achieved a 73% reduction in global emissions of perfluorocarbons, and seeks to be climate neutral by 2015.

Nick Campbell <nick.campbell@arkemagroup.com>
Laurent Corbier <corbier@wbcsd.org>
James Wolf <jwolf@americanstandard.com>
Adriana Kowalewski <ageera@ageera.com.ar>
Fiona Wain <eba@environmentbusiness.com.au>
Yoshihiko Nagasato <ynagasato@nifty.com>
John Scowcroft <jscowcroft@eurelectric.org>
Emma Cornish <cornish@world-nuclear.org>
Brian Flannery <brian.p.flannery@exxonmobil.com>
Kristen Sukalac <ksukalac@fertilizer.org>
Johanna Wickström <jwickstrom@worldlpgas.org>
Jerry Marks <marks@world-aluminium.org>

Development and transfer of technology

Presented by the UNFCCC

Frank Joshua, Climate Investment Partnership, indicated that project proposals require certain technical, financial and risk components in order to attract funding from private investors, and said that project developers in developing countries and countries with economies in transition lack the capacity to put together bankable projects.

Margaret Martin, Natural Resources Canada, reported on a workshop on innovative options for financing technology transfer, held in Montreal, Canada, from 27-29 September 2004. She stressed the significance of risk in deterring investment, and highlighted the need to develop partnerships.

Daniele Violetti, UNFCCC, noted that the private sector provides the majority of resource flows to developing countries for climate change activities. In developing project proposals, he stressed the need to seek added value for particular stakeholders, to quantify expected benefits and revenues, and to incorporate other priorities such as poverty alleviation.

Yap Kok Seng, Malaysian Meteorological Service, said that Annex I Parties should create an enabling environment to help reduce the risk associated with investment in technology transfer. He stressed the need for additional finance flows from outside the CDM framework due to limitations associated with CDM projects.

Thomas Verheye, European Commission, highlighted the role of small and medium enterprises in driving market innovation. He said it was not necessary to design new financing mechanisms, as existing ones can be combined to provide new strategies. He suggested that Patient Capital could increase flows of capital to local entrepreneurs and project developers on an affordable basis. He stressed that the roles of the public and private sectors should be clearly defined.

Frank Joshua, Climate Investment Partnership, said the low quality of projects increases risk perception among investors. He stressed that project proposals should be formulated so that private investors are able to accurately assess the risk and reward of investing in projects. He stressed the need to build tools and templates for risk assessment and to integrate carbon value into the financial components of projects.


Margaret Martin <memartin@nrcan.gc.ca>
Daniele Violetti <dvioletti@unfccc.int>
Yap Kok Seng <yks@kjc.gov.my>
Thomas Verheye <thomas.verheye@cec.eu.int>
Frank Joshua <frank.joshua@climateinvestors.com>

New Annex I GHG inventory reporting software and related developments

Presented by the UNFCCC

Vincent Lalieu, UNFCCC, explained the data import and export features of the new GHG inventory reporting software “CRF Reporter.”

Halldor Thorgeirsson, UNFCCC, said the importance of reporting has increased with the forthcoming entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, noting that inventory reporting is the backbone of climate policy.

James Grabert, UNFCCC, noted that the “Common Reporting Format (CRF) Reporter,” a GHG inventory reporting software, has been developed to facilitate GHG reporting on the basis of a COP-8 decision. He said the software has been delivered to National Focal Points and institutions responsible for inventories.

Tleussen Temertekov, UNFCCC, presented an overview of the Secretariat’s software tools and databases, describing challenges faced during the development of the CRF Reporter, including complexity and amount of data, sectoral differences, and differing data formats. He outlined plans for developing the software, including: development of a module on land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); elaboration of a simplified web-based version for data import; enhancement of existing databases; and tools for further automation and data quality improvement.

Vincent Lalieu, UNFCCC, explained the history of the software’s development, including inventory compilations and testing by Parties, and provided a demonstration of the software. He highlighted import and export features, consistency, completeness and recalculation checks, calculation options and submission preparations.

Roberto Acosta, UNFCCC, asked Parties to test the tool and to report problems and recommendations to the Secretariat.

Discussion: Several participants expressed satisfaction with the software, and recommended developing more automation for data handling.

More information:


Halldor Thorgeirsson <hthorgeirsson@unfccc.int>
James Grabert <jgrabert@unfccc.int>
Tleussen Temertekov <ttemertekov@unfccc.int>
Vincent Lalieu <vlalieu@unfccc.int>
Roberto Acosta <racosta@unfccc.int>

2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Presented by the World Meteorological Organization/UNEP IPCC

Regarding the IPCC Guidelines due in 2006, panelists indicated areas where changes or additions are anticipated.

Simon Eggleston, IPCC, highlighted the importance of the IPCC Guidelines in furthering the goals of the UNFCCC, and said the 2006 IPCC Guidelines consist of five volumes: cross-cutting issues and reporting tables; energy; industrial processes and product use; agriculture, forestry and other land use; and waste. He also discussed direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions and how they will be dealt with in the 2006 Guidelines.
William Kojo Agyemang-Bonsu, IPCC, introduced key issues in the volume on industrial processes and product use. He listed the GHGs and emission sources included in the current Guidelines, and discussed the criteria for including new GHGs and sources.

N.H. Ravindranath, IPCC, presented the volume on agriculture, forests

and other land use, noting that a lot of experience has been accumulated from the 1996 IPCC Guidelines. He said the new Guidelines will address problems identified, such as the classification of land categories, and aim to be more user friendly.

Riitta Pipatti, IPCC, outlined the volume on waste, focusing on main changes and improvements. She listed variations in waste treatment, within and between countries, and changes in waste management as challenges.

Kenneth Skog, IPCC, discussed the proposed guidelines for harvested wood products. He defined harvested wood products as any wood material removed from the land. He said the Good Practice Guidance Goals influence the new Guidelines, noted that the new Guidelines aim to be “approach neutral,” and explained how the estimations of carbon storage will be done.

Dario Gomez, IPCC, introduced the contents of the energy volume, describing the evolution from the 1996 Guidelines, with a particular focus on the reference approach.


Simon Eggleston <eggleston@iegs.or.jp>
William Agyemang-Bonsu <agyemang_bonsu@yahoo.co.uk>
N.H. Ravindranath <ravi@ces.iisc.ernet.int>
Riitta Pipatti <riitta.pipatti@vtt.fi>
Kenneth Skog <kskog@fs.fed.us>
Dario Gomez <dgomez@cnea.gov.ar>

Synergies and tradeoffs between air pollution control and GHG mitigation

Presented by the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA)

Frank Raes, Joint Research Institute, reveals research suggesting that ozone precursor emissions control could have adverse effect on radiative forcing.

Marcus Amann, IIASA, discussed the use of models to analyze global long-term stabilization strategies. He emphasized that a sustainable development scenario would help achieving stabilization of GHG emissions with minimal mitigation measures, relying only on technology transfer, research and development, and population control.

Fabian Wagner, IIASA, presented on the medium-term potential and cost of national mitigation options. He gave an overview of the GAINS model developed by IIASA to assess abatement costs of reducing emissions of the six Kyoto gases, and which has been applied to 43 regions in Europe.

Ger Klassen, European Commission, spoke on assessing the cost-effectiveness of medium-term multi-gas mitigation strategies. He reported projected reductions in Europe of 1% for carbon dioxide, 19% for methane, and 20% for nitrogen oxide by 2012 relative to 1990. He stressed that a 15% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in Europe can

be achieved by 2020 at a cost of €30 billion per year, amounting to 0.2% of the gross domestic product.

Marcus Amann discussed co-benefits of climate change mitigation on air pollution. He stated that achieving a 15% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in Europe by 2020 would entail simultaneous reductions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particular matter, and imply 3000 fewer premature deaths. Amann noted that such benefits would be even greater in developing countries, and would imply considerable cost savings in health care and air pollution control.

Frank Raes, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, made a presentation on the impacts of ozone precursor emissions on radiative forcing and background ozone. He said air pollution policy could have negative effects on GHG emissions, as nitrogen oxide controls decrease ozone concentration but increase the lifetime of methane.

More information:


Marcus Amann <amann@iiasa.ac.at>
Fabian Wagner <wagnerf@iiasa.ac.at>
Ger Klassen <ger.klassen@cec.eu.int>
Frank Raes <frank.raes@jrc.it>

Watch the UNFCCC webcast of Side Events




The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Rado Dimitrov, Ph.D., Catherine Ganzleben, D.Phil., Kati Kulovesi, Charlotte Salpin, and Christoph Sutter, Ph.D. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC COP-10 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from COP-10 can be found on the Linkages website at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop10/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at COP-10 can be contacted at Pabellón 9 and by e-mail at <charlotte@iisd.org>.





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