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published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the UNFCCC Secretariat.
Special Report on Selected Side Events at COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1
28 November - 9 December 2005 | Montréal, Canada
Analysis of the Side Events from
COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1
Daily Web Coverage & Daily Reports:
Mon 28 Nov
Tue 29 Nov
Wed 30 Nov
Thu 1 Dec Fri 2 Dec Sat 3 Dec Mon 5 Dec Tue 6 Dec Wed 7 Dec Thu 8 Dec Fri 9 Dec

Events convened on Saturday, 3 December 2005

Arctic and Canadian vulnerability

Presented by Canada

Jack Anawak, Ambassador, Canada, described the Arctic Council and the importance of indigenous people and their knowledge of the arctic.

Vitaly Churkin, Ambassador, Russia, underlined that climate change in the Arctic has drawn the highest political profile in the world. He said the role of anthropogenic factors of climate change have been recognized at the 2005 G8 meeting, and he called for more research on mitigation and adaptation.

Robert Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Process, presented the results of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), which show that the Arctic is warming more rapidly than any other part of the planet. He listed several consequences of Arctic warming, such as sea level rise, changes in the marine ecosystems, and the disappearance of indigenous people and polar bears. He underlined that even if carbon dioxide emissions were stopped, stabilization would require several hundred years.

Thomas Becker, Greenland Dialogue, reported on a ministerial meeting held in August 2005 in Greenland to discuss the development of a post-Kyoto regime. He said ministers agreed to stop the “blame game” in international negotiations, recognized that the scientific case for climate change has been made, and called for improving knowledge on its economic impact.

Veikko Marttila, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland, indicated that adaptation is part of the 2005 national energy and climate strategy. He outlined priorities for increasing adaptation capacities, including: mainstreaming impacts and adaptation into sectoral policies; addressing long term investments; coping with extreme weather events; improving observation systems; strengthening the research and development base; and international cooperation.

Rune Sverre Fjellheim, Arctic Council, outlined the impacts of climate change on the indigenous Arctic communities, such as health hazards, increased persistent organic pollutants, and travel risks. He stressed the importance of preserving arctic languages that are on the verge of extinction and indicated that the people are willing to share their knowledge of the Arctic if governments recognize the people’s ownership of this knowledge.

Pal Prestrud, Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research, Norway, mentioned the adoption of the Reykjavik Declaration at the time the ACIA report was delivered, which acknowledges the importance of the Arctic and calls for timely and concerted action to address global emissions. He stressed the need for renewed political momentum to address climate change in the Arctic.

Discussion: participants addressed the impact of climate change on fisheries, energy exploration in the Arctic, working groups of the Arctic Council, and methane releases.

Robert Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Process, said the ACIA documents that the Arctic is warming in the range of 8-10 degrees and that the Arctic sea ice has thinned by 20% in the past 26 years
Jack Anawak, Ambassador, Canada, said the Arctic is facing one of the most significant impacts of climate change
L-R: Vitaly Churkin, Ambassador, Russia, Jack Anawak, Ambassador, Canada, Robert Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Process, Veikko Marttila, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland, and Rune Sverre Fjellheim, Acrtic Council
Jack Anawak <>
Vitaly Churkin <>
Robert Corell <>
Thomas Becker <>
Veikko Marttila <>
Rune Sverre Fjellheim <>
Pal Prestrud <>

Climate Insurance

Presented by the Institute for Environmental Studies of the Free University Amsterdam

Ian Burton, independent scholar, highlighted UNFCCC articles relating to insurance and addressed the opportunity for post-2012 regime negotiations to include insurance.

Peter Höppe, Munich Reinsurance Company, introduced the Munich Climate Insurance Initiative and noted the increase in extreme weather events and economic losses. He said the Initiative will help address the consequences of disasters in poor countries.

Christoph Bals, Germanwatch, discussed design considerations in setting up insurance related mechanisms, noting they must be need-based and affordable. He outlined a multilayer concept where actors provide reinsurance capital and premium in a layered risk approach, and said climate insurance activities must be in line with the UNFCCC.

Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, noted the challenge of developing an affordable climate insurance instrument for the developing world and linking it with prevention.

Andrew Dlugolecki, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, discussed the public and private sectors’ roles in insurance-related mechanisms, noting the private sector’s interest in large-scale financial markets and public sector’s data of risk history.

Christoph Bals, Germanwatch, said the “pillars” of a climate insurance fund could be providing compensation for uninsurable slow onset climate change risk and supporting risk financing

Ritu Kumar, Teri-Europe, said risk management in India is reactived. She called for the improvement of loss data collection for insurance companies and the increase in public disaster reinsurance capacity.

Ian Burton <>
Peter Höppe <>
Christoph Bals <>
Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer <>
Andrew Dlugolecki <>
Ritu Kumar <>

Voices from the frontline: climate justice strategies

Presented by Redefining Progress

Henry Clark, West County Toxics Coalition, said climate change is occurring, stressed the need for government officials to recognize the current “state of emergency,” and urged civil society to hold governments accountable.

Sarah James, Council of Athabascan Tribal Government, insisted that protecting the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is part of fighting climate change and called for reducing oil use and disseminating alternative energy.

Vivian Felts, Saving Our Selves (SOS), described consequences of global warming such as recent hurricanes in the Alabama, Mississippi, and the Louisiana Gulf Coast and increases in oceanic and atmospheric temperatures. She emphasized the vulnerability of coastal populations to climate change.

LaTosha Brown, SOS, emphasized the human context of climate change through the lens of hurricane Katrina and subsequent tropical storms. She noted the ongoing effects of Katrina and underlined the vulnerability of low income communities.

Ansje Miller, Environmental Justice and Climate Change Initiative, emphasized the need for climate change solutions to address social and environmental justice, as well as create mechanisms to protect vulnerable communities, other than those under the Kyoto Protocol.

Sarah James, Council of Athabascan Tribal Government, emphasized that drilling in the Arctic Refuge would harm one of the last pristine natural areas in North America, noting that would be saved for our children
Discussion: participants discussed difficulties associated with low-income communities making the transition to a low-carbon economy; economic benefits of renewable energy; and need for sustainable livelihoods.
L-R: Ansje Miller, Environmental Justice and Climate Change Initiative (EJCC), LaTosha Brown, SOS, Vivian Felts, Saving Our Selves (SOS), Sarah James, Council of Athabascan Tribal Government, and Henry Clark, West County Toxics Coalition were the “voices from the frontline,” discussing climate justice strategies
Henry Clark <>
Sarah James <>
Vivian Felts <>
LaTosha Brown <>
Ansje Miller <>

Canada and the post-2012 climate change regime

Presented by the International Institute for Sustainable Development

Aaron Cosbey, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), stated that in order to reach the 550 ppm level we need to reorient growth towards sustainability, clean technology, carbon markets, and adaptation in the post 2012 regime. He said capacity is needed where vulnerability is greatest and harnessing the creativity and resources of the private sector urgently requires a carbon price signal.

Alexey Kokorin, WWF Russia, said Russian priorities are economic and political, not environmental. He said Russia could achieve Kyoto targets depending on whether bureaucratic inertia or creative approaches dominate the process of developing a climate policy.

Harold Winkler, Energy Research Center, South Africa, said actions on sustainable development policies and measures should take priority over setting climate change targets.

Li Liyan, National Climate Change Coordination Committee, China, and David Runnalls, IISD, listen to a question fom the audience

Li Liyan, National Climate Change Coordination Committee, China, indicated that sustainable development is their priority and noted her country’s necessary reliance on coal. She said China is interested in energy efficiency, science-based development, and renewable energy, but not carbon trading schemes.

Noting that fossil fuels are plentiful, Mark Jaccard, Simon Fraser University, said the focus should be reducing emissions, not carbon consumption.

John Drexhage, IISD, said the conclusion of the analysis of 44 options for post 2012 was that we need a regime that passes both the “political laugh test” as well as the “reality check”.

Mark Jaccard, Simon Fraser University and John Drexhage, IISD look at data presented South Africa development priorities
L-R: David Runnalls, IISD, Harald Winkler, Energy Research Center, South Africa, and Li Liyan, National Development and Reform Commission China
Aaron Cosbey <>
Alexey Kokorin <>
Harald Winkler <>
Li Liyan <>
Mark Jaccard <>
John Drexhage <>
David Runnalls <>

Climate Change: Why are forward-looking businesses taking action?

Presented by the United Kingdom

Sara Hendry, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), outlined the British Prime Minister’s efforts to engage business in the climate agenda.

Terry Townshend, DEFRA, provided an overview of a recent UK climate conference called “Climate change: A business forecast”.

Mark Kenber, The Climate Group, noted that climate change is not only a risk but also an opportunity and that businesses have a chance to profit.

Fanny Calder, University of Cambridge, illustrated how businesses are engaging with the climate change issue through the formation of the Corporate Leaders Group on Climate Change.

Daniel Gagnier, ALCAN, noted that climate change is a global challenge requiring global response

Daniel Gagnier, ALCAN, emphasized that there are a number of low-hanging fruit in terms of climate change abatement technology.

Jeff Passmore, Iogen Corporation, illustrated his company’s initiatives in the production of cellulose ethanol fuel that provides emission reduction benefits.

Kirsty Hamilton, Business Council for Sustainable Energy, UK, presented the findings of a study on UK business views on international climate and energy policy.

Discussion: participants discussed energy security issues as a driver for renewable energy development and the need to promote alternative fuel vehicles.

Sarah Hendry <>
Terry Townshend <>
Mark Enber <>
Fanny Calder <>
Daniel Gagnier <>
Jeff Passmore <>
Kirsty Hamilton <>
Rachel Solomon Williams <>

Information Networks for Small-Scale CDM Development in Africa

Presented by Climate Action Network International and Marbek Resource Consultants

Geoff Stiles, Marbek Resource Consultants, highlighted features of the GHG Clearinghouse Website, including a resource centre, moderated forum, news and events, links, and a clearinghouse for projects and service providers. He suggested NGO networks improve their relationship with business interests, and highlighted potential benefits of an African “network of networks” on climate change, similar to that developed for the Asian region, which has received far greater attention to date.

Dean Cooper, Promoting Access to Carbon Equity, noted that barriers to small scale African CDM projects include high cost and lack of awareness. He urged building independent African CDM capacity and outlined his organization’s activities, including lobbying and project development facilitation.

Collins Olisa-Emeka Gardner, Presidential Implementation Committee on CDM, Nigeria, noted that the African Development Bank has not been as active a supporter of CDM projects as its Asian counterpart, and that the CDM should be private sector driven.

Johannes Chigwada, Zero Regional Environment Organization, Zimbabwe, described a pilot project testing a wind-powered community electricity grid.

Geoff Stiles, Marbek Resource Consultants, said constraints such as poor telecommunications, security concerns, and lack of awareness have hampered CDM efforts in Africa
Dean Cooper, Promoting Access to Carbon Equity, noted that CDM’s definition of “small scale” actually encapsulates large projects by Africa’s standards, and that although project bundling reduces costs and attracts more investors, it also carries greater risk
Geoff Stiles <>
Dean Cooper <>
Collins Olisa-Emeka Gardner <>
Johannes Chigwada <>

European Business in Action

Presented by the Union of Industrial and Employers Confederation of Europe

Daniel Cloquet, Union of Industrial and Employers Confederation of Europe (UNICE), outlined the progress and prospects for reducing emissions by UNICE companies, such as the development of new technologies.

Brigitte Poot, Total, described Total’s achievements in reducing emissions, and outlined a group action plan for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction.

Stephan Herbst, Toyota Motor Europe, presented his company’s environmental management approaches, including efforts to produce a zero emission car and research on clean diesel technology.

Jean-Yves Caneill, Eléctricité de France, said electricity companies can act at two levels, namely, carbon-free electricity generation and reduction in electricity consumption.

Peter Botschek, European Chemical Energy Council, outlined some of the challenges to emissions reductions strategies such as the improper functioning of emission trading schemes.

Stephan Herbst, Toyota Motors Europe, said having “clean, green and lean” production sites makes business sense

Geri Hoibye, Norwegian Confederation of Industries, noted the long term agreements of the aluminum, land-based process, and oil and gas industry to reduce emissions.

Joachim Hein, German Industry Federation, stressed the need for improving the functioning of the EU Emission trading scheme and bringing on board other large emitters.

Discussion: participants discussed improving efficiencies and technological breakthroughs in the chemical industry, and the urgent need for a carbon price signal.

Daniel Cloquet <>
Brigitte Poot <>
Stephan Herbst <>
Jean-Yves Caneill <>
Peter Botschek <>
Geri Hoibye <>
Joachim Hein <>
The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Asmita Bhardwaj, Alice Bisiaux, Robynne Boyd, Twig Johnson, Ph.D., and Peter Wood. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Lisa Schipper, Ph.D. <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from UNFCCC COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at COP 11 and COP/MOP 1 can be contacted at its office at the conference venue (room 342) or by e-mail at <>.

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