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published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the UNFCCC Secretariat.
Special Report on Selected Side Events at COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1
28 November - 9 December 2005 | Montréal, Canada
Analysis of the Side Events from
COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1
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Mon 28 Nov
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Events convened on Thursday, 8 December 2005

Central America and the Caribbean: advances in adaptation to climate change

Presented by the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre

Ambassador Carl Marshall, Jamaica, noted a recent partnership-based workshop on CDM developments, which involved designated national authorities (DNAs) and stakeholders from the English-speaking Caribbean. He highlighted a windfarm project being implemented by a Jamaican energy company.

Crispin d’Auvergne, Saint Lucia, described efforts to adapt to climate change in this region, noting that adaptation is equated with survival. He noted the need to convey a sense of urgency regarding preparation for climate change to help people take control of adaptation efforts, and to use “social marketing” to understand how to best motivate people.

Emilio Sempris, Water Centre for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean, drew attention to the significant advances made since initial adaptation efforts in 1996, including capacity building, familiarity with climate change vocabulary, and the achievement of a critical mass of local researchers. He described the strategy for implementing the Adaptation Project Framework, and emphasized matching adaptation to nation-specific interests. He also noted that social sciences play an increasingly important role in strengthening adaptive capacities. He indicated that water quality and availability is a great concern to many countries in the region, and has been a driver of the project.

Kenrick Leslie, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), noted future adaptation activities, and added that both climate variability and climate change impacts need consideration, including erosion and fresh water salinization.

He outlined the development of the CCCCC Special Project on Adaptation in the Caribbean, a pilot project developed in cooperation with GEF, CAPRICOM and donor countries, expected to come online in 2006. He described activities related to the Dialogue on Options for Climate and Insurance-Related Activities, including partnerships with universities in North America. He noted the potential collaboration with Japan on the development of forecasting climate models in relation to watershed management and agriculture.

Discussion: participants expressed concern about equity in CDM project distribution, presently skewed towards larger developing countries, and the ability of present capacity building efforts to address this issue.

Crispin d’Auvergne, Saint Lucia, stressed the need for action-oriented messages regarding hurricane preparedness in the wake of hurricane Ivan, the first such event in the past fifty years
Ambassador Carl Marshall, Jamaica, noted that small countries need further assistance through grants or low-interest loans to assist with CDM projects
Ambassador Carl Marshall <>
Crispin d’Auvergne <>
Emilio Sempris <>
Kenrick Leslie <>

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Prelude to a National Program?

Presented by Resources for the Future, NESCAUM, and WRI

Michelle Manion, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), described stages in the development of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), including groundwork, data assembly, sector modeling, economic analysis, and stakeholder consultation. She noted that offset projects have included methane capture and afforestation, and that if the allowance price exceeds a certain threshold, the percentage of allowable offsets is increased.

Dallas Burtraw, Resources for the Future, noted the importance of initial distribution of emission allowances under RGGI, highlighting that these are first apportioned to states, and then allocated to emitting firms. He described difficulties associated with balancing efficiency and equity and stressed that the fundamental question remains whether firms will be able to pass on cost increases to consumers. Burtraw noted that 20% of allowances given to states must be used for public benefit programmes.

Jonathan Pershing, WRI, discussed RGGI offsets, noting that state sovereignty has been greater in the absence of federal involvement. He described predicted outcomes of five different policy scenarios, ranging from a 0 to 35% reduction. He cautioned that excessive costs could reduce political will, but that allowing a broader range of offsets may reduce costs.

Discussion: participants discussed ways in which RGGI differs from a carbon tax; the importance of the variability associated with Canada in the model; and the expected leakages which may undermine cost-effectiveness.

Dallas Burtraw, RFF, noted the existence of precedents in auctioning off property rights to resources previously considered free, such as timber. He stressed that a firm’s success under RGGI will depend on its energy portfolio
Michelle Manion, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), noted that in the absence of federal leadership on emissions trading, the region is proud to have initiated this program, and that initial price impacts will be minimal. She suggested that the real benefits will come in the form of technological innovation, and noted the potential for using algae in carbon capture
Michelle Manion <>
Dallas Burtraw <>
Jonathan Pershing <>

Panama, where climate leverages businesses for sustainable development

Presented by Panama

Ricaurte Vásquez, Minister of Economy and Finance, Panama, provided an overview of Panama’s economy and described aspects of the Canal’s expansion project. Carmen Vergara, Vice-minister of International Trade, Panama, highlighted various projects, including the modernization of public transportation.

Eduardo Reyes, National Authority of Environment (ANAM), Panama, highlighted ANAM’s role in positioning the CDM portfolio in the international arena.

Alejandro Hanono, Istmus Hydro Power Corporation, described the Concepción Hydropower plant project.

Benoit Chouinard, Gasosyn Energies International, described a Thermocycling Plant project currently in development, highlighting its social and economic benefits.

Roy William Goti, SGS, emphasized SGS’s ability to market and deliver CDM validation and verification services in Panama.

Etienne Parisis, Panama ACOS BioEthanol Refinery, described the Indigenous Renewable Carbonaceous Energy Development process noting that it is the most efficient and economical biomass conversion hydrolysis process available.

Mark Ford, Eco Structures, noted the development of the Bilge Environmental Safety and Treatment project aimed at eliminating disposal of indiscriminate ocean discharges of toxic substances.

Arturo Ramirez, Hidroenergetica, presented a hydropower project, saying it will tackle rising energy usage and stabilize energy prices.

Jorge Arrige, Andean Development Corporation, reviewed his company’s CDM experience in Panama, noting the presence of qualified local capacity.

Frank Joshua, Carbon Centre, explained that the Centre is a marketplace for project developers looking for investment and investors searching for investment grade projects.

Carmen Vergara, Viceminister of International Trade, Panama, said Panama is at the mercy of fossil fuel prices, and highlighted the new policy on energy savings, saying it will include the promotion of new technologies, conservation of the environment and promote market competition
Ricaurte Vásquez, Minister of Economy and Finance, Panama, said Panama’s economy will continue to increase by approximately 5% annually with sustained reductions in unemployment
Ricaurte Vásquez <>
Carmen Gisela Vergara <>
Eduardo Reyes <>
Alejandro Hanono <>
Benoit Chouinard <>
Etienne Parisis <>
Mark Thomas Ford <>
Arturo Ramírez <>
Jorge Arrigh <>
Frank Joshua <>
Roy Williams Goti <>
Ligia castro de Doens <>

Global Cooling: cities take leadership

Presented by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives

Jim Yienger, International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), highlighted ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection Campaign on cities’ actions to reduce GHG.

Gregory Nickels, Mayor of Seattle, US, described the US Mayor Climate Protection Agreement and noted that cities can provide a unified voice to catalyze action at the federal level.

Marcelo Vensentini, Undersecretary for Environment, Buenos Aires, Argentina, listed some GHG mitigation techniques used by his city, including expansion of the subway system.

Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, UK, urged cities to work proactively with national partnerships to address climate change and outlined London’s initiatives in moving towards decentralized energy.

Raymond Mampe, Executive Mayor of Potchefstroom, South Africa, highlighted activities of the CCP programme in Potchefstroom, including promoting energy efficiency in buildings and planting of trees, stressing the importance of political will.

Alan Milne, Mayor of Kapiti Coast District, New Zealand, urged participants to convey to their communities the urgency of addressing climate change in order to start building local political will.

Gord Steeves, Federation of Canadian Municipalities, described North America’s car culture as an outcome of municipalities being funded through property taxes, which encourages urban sprawl, and hoped for a new development model.

Raymond Mampe, Executive Mayor Potchefstroom, South Africa, described the tree planting project and said it created job employment; helped with carbon sequestration; and doubled as an awareness campaign
Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, UK, described London’s congestion charge, noting the largest shift in public transportation use in the shortest period of time
L-R: Panelists: Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, UK, Gregory Nickels, Mayor of Seattle, US, Marcelo Vensentini, Undersecretary of the Environment, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Alan Milne, Mayor of Kapiti coast District, New Zealand, Raymond Mampe, Executive Mayor of Potchefstroom, South Africa, and Gord Steeves, Second Vice President, Federation of Canadian Municipalities discussed global cooling; cities take leadership
Jim Yienger <>
Marcelo Vensentini <>
Nicky Gavron <>
Raymond Mampe <>
Alan Milne <>
Michelle Wyman <>
Gord Steeves <>

Building and Strengthening Institutional Capacities in Climate Change: Brazil, South Africa, India and China

Presented by the Institute of Development Studies

Farhana Yamin, Institute of Development Studies, described the BASIC project which supports implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and Convention commitments and builds country capacity for engagement in future climate change negotiations in four developing countries.

Shirene Rosenberg, Resource Management Environmental Planning, City of Cape Town, illustrated public sector experiences in implementing CDM in South Africa.

Paul Curnow, Baker & Mackenzie, noted that a number of important decisions are expected to emerge from the current COP, regarding governance of the CDM Executive Board and bundling of CDM projects.

Gylvan Meira Filho, University of São Paulo, underscored the importance of steering CDM towards a more global approach.

Jacques Markovitch, University of São Paulo, highlighted a number of collaborative efforts in Brazil such as satellite monitoring of deforestation in the Amazon.

Jurgen Lefevre, European Commission, emphasized the significant progress on CDM and noted the growing interest in linking CDM to company-based trading schemes.

Jonathan Pershing, World Resources Institute, noted a regional initiative for emission trading in the North-Eastern US, and highlighted that adaptation activities have to accommodate both present and future climate impacts.

Lu Xuedu, CDM EB, said while CDM reform is necessary it should ensure additional emission reductions.

Discussion: participants discussed possibilities of certifying, mapping and getting credits for adaptation, and linking adaptation to the CDM.

Farhana Yamin, Institute of Development Studies, highlighted some of the BASIC project country teams’ areas of focus, including energy and mitigation in China; adaptation and vulnerability in India; and enhancing negotiating skills by Brazi
Shirene Rosenberg, Resource Management Environmental Planning, City of Cape Town, noted that CDM policy has focused on engaging the private sector and neglected the public sector
Farhana Yamin <>
Shirene Rosenberg <>
Gylvan Meira Filho <>
Paul Curnow <>
Jacques Markovitch <>
Jonathan Pershing <>

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Russia: current status and outlook

Presented by the National Carbon Sequestration

Alexander Kosarikov, Russian State Duma, said the future climate regime should be greener and include carbon giants such as the US, China and India.

Noted that Russian emissions are growing faster than intensity reductions, Oleg Pluznikov, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, Russia, indicated that the revised ecological legislation is being finalized.

Alexander Ishkov, Ministry of Natural Resources, Russia, noted that the development of a National Registry for carbon balance estimation under Kyoto and stated that carbon dioxide absorption by forests is a priority for the future regime.

Alexander Golub, Environmental Defense, said Russia will meet its emissions targets but uncertainty about future incentives and industry’s response make 2022 predictions uncertain.

Helmut Schreiber, World Bank, described support for developing a Green Investment Scheme, highlighting the failure of CDM and delays in JI projects. He also said the new umbrella carbon facility was designed for very large projects.

Oleg Pertsovsky, RAO UESR, said his electric power company’s inventory is successful, noted its participation in the carbon market, and called for emissions trading to finance action.

Insaf Saifullin, OAO Gazprom, indicated that his gas company the world’s largest and is collaborating with a number of European industries in the development of mitigation projects.

Oleg Pluznikov, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, said 15 Ministries and Agencies have approved revised ecological regulations and they should be finalized soon
Alexander Kosarikov, Russian State Duma, said certain obstacles to emissions trading should be resolved next year
Yury Fedorov <>
Evgeniy Sokolov <>
Oleg Pertsofsky <>

The French policy on climate change: from local to international perspective

Presented by France

Nelly Olin, French Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development, outlined France’s climate change initiatives, highlighting the role of local authorities and the importance of adaptation. She listed measures and incentives to promote clean and renewable energies such as tax exemptions for hybrid cars and increased support for research on green transportation technologies.

Adrien Zeller, Regional Council of Alsace, presented Energivie, a regional programme on energy efficiency and renewable energy. He said regional actions strengthen national efforts to mitigate climate change and engage civil society.

Marc Antoine Martin, French Global Environmental Facility (FFEM), described a French cooperation project aimed at installing new wood-fueled boilers for the network of two cities in Lithuania. He highlighted the project’s advantages, including: employment creation, air quality improvement; and better forest management.

Francois Moisan, French Environment and Energy Grid Agency (ADEME), explained that Bilan Carbone is an emission accounting tool aimed at helping companies and local authorities develop a local climate change strategy.

Claude Nahon, Eléctricité de France, presented Bilan Carbone, an industry initiative for research on renewable energies with a focus on the building sector. She said Bilan Carbone is a forum for information exchange, training and the development of synergies between industries.

Discussion: participants addressed the need to develop region-specific climate strategies; public awareness; and education on climate change.

Nelly Olin, French Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development, indicated that France is the first producer of renewable energy in Europe
Marc Antoine Martin, French Global Environmental Facility (FGEF), stated that FGEF projects are sustainable, innovative and have measurable impact
Adrien Zeller <>
Marc Antoine Martin <>
Francois Moisan <>
Claude Nahon <>

Climate Change-A development issue

Presented by the International Institute of Environment and Development

Andrew Simms, New Economics Foundation, introduced the working group on climate change and development, highlighting their “Up in Smoke” series of publications.

Victor Orinidi, ACTS Kenya, emphasized that addressing poverty will go a long way in increasing the resilience of households to climate change.

John Magrath, Oxfam UK, noted that while climate change hits the poor the hardest, and that climate processes pay inadequate attention to key issues such as power, exploitation and injustice.

John Lanchberry, BirdLife International, highlighted the need to consider the significant damage costs in societies due to climate change.

Rachel Berger, Practical Action, stressed the need to address faulty governmental policies that have a counterproductive effect on the diverse livelihood strategies and coping capabilities of poor communities.

Rod Harbinson, Panos, noted Panos’ efforts on stimulating climate change debates and awareness amongst the general public.

Stephanie Long, Friends of Earth Australia, noted the large increase in ecological refugees and effects of climate change on the Pacific Islands.

Saleemul Huq, International Institute of Environment and Development, noted their efforts to persuade development NGOs to engage in the climate change processes.

Discussion: participants discussed initiatives to form coalitions for addressing climate change impacts at the community level.

Rachel Berger, Practical Action, noted that renewable energy is not the only solution for poor communities since emissions of many developing countries are quite low. She recommended the use of fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas as a climate friendly solution
John Lanchberry, BirdLife International, remarked that the climate COPs have developed evermore complicated ways of not reducing emissions
L-R: John Magrath, Oxfam GB, Victor Orinidi, ACTS Kenya, Stephanie Long, Friends of Earth Australia, Rod Harbinson, Panos, Rachel Berger, Practical Action, Andrew Simms, New Economics Foundation, John Lanchberry, BirdLife International, and Saleemul Huq, IIED
Andrew Simms <>
Victor Orinidi <>
John Magrath <>
John Lanchberry <>
Rachel Berger <>
Rod Harbinson <>
Stephanie Long <>
Saleemul Huq <>
The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Andrew Baldwin, Asmita Bhardwaj, Alice Bisiaux, Robynne Boyd, Twig Johnson, Ph.D., and Peter Wood. The photographer is Leila Mead. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Lisa Schipper, Ph.D. <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at UNFCCC COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from UNFCCC COP 11 & Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 1 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at COP 11 and COP/MOP 1 can be contacted at its office at the conference venue (room 342) or by e-mail at <>.

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